ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

What's a system: an inter-disciplinary summary

Updated on August 21, 2015

'The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.'

Aristotle of Stagirus (384 BCE – 322BCE)


A system can be defined as a sum of elements, interrelated one another, that acts like a single entity. A system has a target; a system can be made up of sub systems. This definition leads in some way to the fact the amount of the elements is not enough to understand the whole entity behaviour. Generally, the more complex is the system (more elements, more relations) the richest is the outcome. And that's the general base of the sentence “the system is more than the sum of it's part” perhaps you've heard, since it has been said for several centuries. As it happens in many organic structures, the outcome gives a feedback like it's more important and has a different quality than the sum of it's part where they are taken separately.


A system can be found:

a) in human body

b) in phylosophy

c) in politics

d) in economy

e) in energy

A. Most famous ones do concern breathing, hearth and circulation of the blood.

B. A series of thoughts that is so organic to define the world and anything existing is called philosophical system. In general it means there is a source of explanation for everything existing and once the source is understood, anything has to be interpreted through that source.

C. Here we clearly see the difference between a sub system and a system. The electoral system is a sub system. A series of rules that allows to have an election is a sub system. Since this election allows to put people in charge, the charges are part of a system already defined, that goes extremely over the concept of elections and lasts many years over them.

D. A firm is a system. The relation between some firms, whether they are in competition or they serve one another (dependence) they are related. Families and firms are sub systems related. The national economy is the system and in the international economy there comes out the relation between different systems.

E. Links allow energy not to lack in a single unit that is part of the system. As it contains energy creation, sharing through links, consumption. A link of houses – shops - factories that uses energy, from one or more sources, makes up a system. The bigger is the system and the more interrelations it has, the lower is the possibility that a member will lack energy for itself.

Interesting to notice there is a significant intersection between a political system and an economic one (Points C and D). Since politics allows public spending and that's the strongest input coming from only one source to the national system. The importance of the role of the state through public spending is fundamental. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, probably inspired by John Maynard Keynes theories, was a politician making a massive use of this public stimulation has been. So that one can say, the first massive public spending intervention took place in order to exit from the 30's depression.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)