Oh, Leah just remember it. Mongols' main strength is with their heavy cavalry, in the Mongol landscape knowing how to ride horses is very important, back then children need to learn how to ride horses before they can even walk, even today they maintain that as an important part of Mongol tradition and cavalry are more flexible then infantry.
Thus, Gankas Kan used this to his advantage creating the strongest horse riding heavy cavalry in the world.
During Gankas Kan era, mongol heavy cavalry each is armed with 3 grenades, 7 pre loaded pistols, arrows, long range rockets (an arrow with a grenade attach to it and with a rocket propeller, fire via a bow, can fire up to 300 meters, explode upon impact) short range rockets (an arrow with a grenade attach to it, explode upon impact) one long bow, one short bow and one broad sword, because that is a lot of equipment, each cavalry horseman is accompany by three pages.
In addition, because Mongols all need to learn how to use a bow at a young age, Gankas Kai, use this to their advantage, thus, apart from pistols, rockets and arrow, was Mongols main weapon, as both weapons needed to be fire via a bow (bow is no longer needed for firing a rocket by 14th century, when China invented the first RPG)
Before that Mongols military mainly used infantry with swordsman, each armed with shield, broad sword and pistols, which was slower and didn't explore Mongols advantage of been good at archery and were defeated by the China and and Manchurian alliance, when the Chinese and Manchurian force them to fight war on 2 fronts.
Europe during that time, has heavy horseman cavalry, which are knights with armor cover each inch of their body, equip with a wooden length and 1 sword, but due to then Europe's poverty many horseman in fact ride donkeys, its infantry is swordsman, also wearing armor that cover each inch of their body and archer, kind of like Robin Hood, artillery was limited to catapulp that throw rocks and buring woods, (only Asia had fire arms back then)
I don't know of then Arab's equipment.
China's main strength was its infantry, primary bayonet (short lance with a pistol attached to it) and archers that use bows to fire arrows and long and short range rockets. Bayonet was most effective weapon defending against horse riding cavalry, even by Napoleon's time, but horror in offense against horseman cavalry, thus, China vs Mongols war went into stalemate, when Mongols used the element of surprise to quickly conquer northern China, before they can respond. Chinese troops regroup at Southern China and used their infantry strength to hold up defense. For 60 years, China and Mongols went into stalemate, when Mongols cannot penetrate China's defense and conquer Southern China. Southern China, due to their infantry been slow, in comparison to the fast Mongol cavalry are not able to reclaim Northern China. But after 60 years, Mongols managed to seize Southern China's capital, the official war was over, but regional governor still kept fighting Mongols, by late 13th century, China invented the first RPG call a "bee nest" and the first weapon that resemble modern rifle (kind of like a rifle that is as big and heavy as an RPG) Mongol, thus lost many of their advantages, adding to having to fight on enemy turf and been outnumbered, they got pushed out of China, by early 14th century.