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Intro to College Biology

Updated on July 7, 2014

I am currently enrolled in a College Biology course and want to use squidoo to help me learn the concepts and hopefully it can be useful to you as well.

This is a work in progress and I will add more as the term progresses.

Thanks and Hope you enjoy!!

Thank you very much for your support!!!

So you want to learn about biology

Main Theories behind Biology

First of what is Biology anyway??

Biology is "the study of life".

"Bio" meaning life and

"log -y" meaning pertaining to the study of.

Biology is based primarily upon 2 theories:

1)The Cell Theory

2)The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection

1)The Cell Theory:All organisms are made of cells and that all cells come from preexisting cells.

(Excessive experimentation has shown that cells can only come from preexisting cells that have divided and split to form new cells.)

2)The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Species have changes over time and that all species are related to one another through common ancestry.

(Meaning that all microscopic organisms, plants, fungi and animals originally

came from the same set of cells and through natural selection the cells changed

to create the diverse number of species alive today)

Macromolecules

These are the basic components found in all cells:

-CARBOHYDRATES:

---Made of C, H and O (generally in this ratio CH2O)

---Ratio is 1(C) to 2 (H) to 1 (O)

---Dissolves easily in water (due to polarity of H and O)

---Two forms Ring ( in water) or Linear in shape

---monomers: monosaccharides

---polymers: polysaccharides

--------FUNCTIONS

--------energy storage (plants:starch, animals:glycogen)

--------structure (plants:cellulose, animal/fungi:chitin)

--------cell to cell signaling (ex. Blood type-glycoprotein)

-LIPIDS

---Made of C and H

---Does NOT dissolve in water (not polar)

---Types: Fats, Steroids, Phospholipids

---No monomers or polymers

---Share electrons in covalent bonds

---Fat = 3 fatty acids with glycerol

---Steroid = 4 ring structure + functional group

---Phospholipid = 2 fatty acids with phosphate group

--------FUNCTIONS

--------Fat: long term energy storage

--------Steroid: Cholesterol and Hormones

--------Phospholipid: cell membrane layer

-PROTEIN

---Made of C, H, N, O and S

---Chemical behavior is highly variable and dependent on structure

---monomer: Amino Acids

---polymer: polypeptide

---20 Common amino acids in living organisms

---Amino group (H3N+), R group, and carboxyl group

---4 levels of structure (linear, secondary, tertiary, quartenary)

--------FUNCTIONS

--------catalyze reactions

--------transportation

--------molecules

--------immune system

--------hormone receptors

--------structural

--------contract muscles

--------antibodies

--------transport

--------enzymes

-NUCLEIC ACID

---Made of C, H, N, O and P

---2 types DNA and RNA

---monomer: nucleotides

---polymer: nucleic acid

---phosphate group, nitrogenous base and a sugar group

--------FUNCTIONS

--------carry genetic information

--------nucleotide sequence in DNA codes for amino acid sequence in proteins.

Notes

C is Carbon

O is Oxygen

N is Nitrogen

H is Hydrogen

P is Phosphorous

S is Sulfer

Life Naming Scheme

There are 7 levels of organization and classification based on traits:

1) Kingdom

2) Phylum

3) Class

4) Order

5) Family

6) Genus

7) Species

1) A Kingdom at one point consisted of just two categories plants and animals but after years of research that has been expanded to 6 categories (sometimes shown as 5 categories where "bacteria and archea" form a group called "Monera")

---Bacteria : single cell, cell walls, Prokaryote

---Archea: single cell, cell walls, Prokaryote

---Protista: mostly single cell, most have cell walls, Eukaryote

---Fungi: multicellular, cell walls, Eukaryote

---Plantae: multicellular, cell walls, Eukaryote

---Animalia: multicellular, no cell walls, Eukaryote

Cells

The basic unit of life

Cytoplasm:

This is the fluid within the cell.

The Nucleus:

This is the information center of the cell. It stores much of the genetic material needed to assign tasks throughout the cell. The Nucleus stores Chromosomes on the nuclear lamina and RNA is stored in the Nucleolus.

---COMPONENTS

---Nucleolus: Area in nucleus that produces/stores RNA

---Nuclear Lamina: A fiberous protein structure inside the membrane which give it its shape.

---Nuclear Envelope: A name for the double membrane which encloses the nucleus

--------FUNCTIONS:

--------Genetic Information

--------Assembly of ribosome subunits

--------Structural Support

Ribosomes:

These are small pockets of RNA and protein in the cell. When RNA from the nucleus attaches to free floating ribosomes they connect together to synthesis protein. Ribosomes also attach to the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) to create Rough ER.

--------FUNCTIONS:

--------Protein Synthesis

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER):

--------FUNCTIONS:

--------Protein Synthesis and Processing

Golgi apparatus

--------FUNCTIONS:

--------Protein Processing

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER):

--------FUNCTIONS:

--------Lipid Synthesis

Lysosomes:

--------FUNCTIONS:

--------Digestion and recycling

Peroxisomes:

--------FUNCTIONS:

--------Processing Fatty Acids

Vacuoles:

--------FUNCTIONS:

--------Varies in Function

--------Coloration

--------Storage of oils

--------Storage of carbohydrates

--------Storage of water or toxins

Mitochondria:

--------FUNCTIONS:

--------The power house of the cell

Chloroplasts:

--------FUNCTIONS:

--------photosynthesis in plants

Cytoskeleton:

--------FUNCTIONS:

--------hold cell shape

Plasma Membrane:

--------FUNCTIONS:

--------keep cell intact

Cell Wall:

--------FUNCTIONS:

--------keep shape

Energy in Cells

What is energy? It is the capacity to do work

---potential: stored energy

---kinetic: motion, active energy

What causes potential energy in cells?

---electron position

---structure

What has kinetic energy in cells?

---thermal (heat)

---movement

Properties of Energy

1st Law: Energy can't be destroyed or created (can change form: kinetic or potential)

2nd Law: Some energy is lost as heat (unusable).

endergonic = a reaction that absorbs energy

exergonic= a reaction that releases energy

Animals : Eat Food > Digest > Brake down > Absorb (make ATP or molecules)

Fungi: Secrete enzymes > Digest > Absorb (make ATP or molecules)

Plants: Inorganic material + sunlight + CO2 > make monomers (make ATP or molecules)

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      anonymous 4 years ago

      This is great and I wish there was more,I have finals next week and this is a really good summary.