ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel


Updated on September 16, 2014

What is a Therblig?

Therbligs are the smallest units of work. They were developed by Frank Gilbreth, one of the fathers of ergonomics, the science of motion. Frank Gilbreth was a very interesting man, and if you read further, you'll learn more about both therbligs and Gilbreth. And you may discover you knew a little about therbligs, after all.

Therblig graphic by Zcademy

The image at left is available as a poster and other products at

Have You Heard of Therbligs Before?

See results
Frank Gilbreth
Frank Gilbreth

About Frank Gilbreth

Frank Bunker Gilbreth, Sr. was born on July 7, 1868 and died June 14, 1924. He was an early advocate of scientific management and a pioneer of motion study, a field in business that was just beginning in the early 1900s, and later changed into what we know as ergonomics today. He was accepted by MIT, but turned it down for economic reasons, and began work as a bricklayer, becoming a building contractor, inventor, and finally as a management engineer.

Mr. Gilbreth got his start in time and motion study when he invented a work platform for his fellow bricklayers to hold the bricks at a comfortable height, instead of reaching down to their feet for each brick. He later went on to develop ways to decrease unnecessary motion in a number of fields, and served as a consultant to many of the largest companies of his era. He invented the concept of therbligs to help quantify and explain his work.

Mr. Gilbreth married Lillian Evelyn Moller on October 19, 1904 in Oakland, California; they had 12 children, 11 lived to adulthood. Despite his ground-breaking work, he is far better known as an unconventional father, because two of his children wrote a book about their family life, Cheaper by the Dozen. A sequel, Belles on Their Toes, was written after Mr. Gilbreth's sudden death at 55, when most of his children were still young, and Mrs Gilbreth continued the management consulting business.

This biography was adapted from the Wikipedia article, with additional knowledge I gained from reading, and the photo also comes from Wikipedia.

Books By and About Frank Gilbreth - Click on any book or link to buy it

The books (and one video) shown in this hub are either about Frank Gilbreth and his family, or written by him. They range from light biography to serious research work. Clicking any picture or link will take you to, where you can buy the book, or anything else.

Cheaper by the Dozen
Cheaper by the Dozen

I read this book in 5th grade, and again as an adult. I loved it both times, though I saw very different material in it each time.


Cheaper by the Dozen

This is a delightful story about a highly intelligent offbeat family in the 1910s. The Gilbreths were truly geeks of their time.

I'm not sure what I enjoyed more: when Mr Gilbreth painted the Morse code on the dining room wall, when he played Learn a Foreign Language records as the kids used the bathrooms in the morning, or the scene where he marches in to the school principal's office, demanding that one kid or another be given a grade skip.

After reading this as an adult, I changed my parenting style a bit.

Belles on Their Toes
Belles on Their Toes

This is a sequel to Cheaper by the Dozen, about the Gilbreth family after Frank dies suddenly.


Mrs Gilbreth's Story

What do you do if it's 1923 and your husband and business partner dies suddenly, leaving you with 11 children?

This book, written by two of the Gilbreth kids, describes these years. Mrs Gilbreth had been a full partner in her husband's work, but could get very few consulting jobs because she was "just a woman."

She eventually became an expert on kitchen design, and wrote one of the mid century's best books on household management.

This book focuses on family life in a 1920s house full of teenagers. Prepare for a wild ride!

Therbligs with Names
Therbligs with Names | Source

So, What Are Therbligs?

Aside from Gilbreth spelled sideways?

Therbligs are the smallest units of work motions

For example, if you need to check off a box on a form, you need to look for the pencil, reach for the pencil, pick it up, maybe change your grip, move it to the paper, make the check mark, then take the pencil to its resting place and put it down. Each of these tiny steps is a therblig.

Mr Gilbreth defined 17 different therbligs. Each therblig has its own symbol, and color, so one could produce motion charts for each task. Mr Gilbreth would time each therblig, and used early motion picture studies to find ways to eliminate unnecessary therbligs from work tasks.

It is useful for manufacturers to determine how workers can use as few therbligs as possible to do their work, both because the workers will be able to get more done, and because they will be less tired. This is often called "time and motion study," and is useful in preventing repetitive motion injuries as well as in improving worker efficiency.

For example, if you always put your pencil in a stand that lets you grab it using the same hand position you use for writing, you use fewer therbligs then if you keep it in a drawer or flat on the table. The task would take less time, and you would have more energy to do other things.

For a much more detailed essay, with detailed explanations of each therblig, visit the Therbligs page at The Gilbreth Network. This site also has other information about the Gilbreths.

The 17 Therbligs





Transport Loaded

Transport Empty







Release Load

Unavoidable Delay

Avoidable Delay


Rest (to overcome fatigue)

Time & Motion Study: Original Films of Frank Gilbreth: The History of Assembly Line Productivity and Manufacturing Productivity (1910's - 1920's)
Time & Motion Study: Original Films of Frank Gilbreth: The History of Assembly Line Productivity and Manufacturing Productivity (1910's - 1920's)

Mr Gilbreth was an early adopter of motion picture technology in analyzing work habits. These films let him quantize work units into therbligs.

Heinlein Therblig Quote
Heinlein Therblig Quote

Other Therblig References

There are very few direct references to therbligs. One of the best known is from science fiction author, Robert Heinlein: Minimize your therbligs until it becomes automatic; this doubles your effective lifetime - and therby gives time to enjoy butterflies and kittens and rainbows." This quote is actually what led me to learn about therbligs.

Much of what we call ergonomic design involves minimizing therbligs. When Mr. Gilbreth worked as a bricklayer, he designed a platform for holding bricks at the ideal working height - an example of design to minimize therbligs.

Good kitchen design also involves thinking about therbligs. The trends toward open shelving, drawers instead of lower cabinets, and similar, are all rooted in the desire to get work done with few excess motions - therbligs in action.

Have you seen other references to Therbligs? Share them in the Comments section below.

Therbligs Mug from Zazzle

One side of this mug has the author's graphic showing the 17 therbligs, the other has the quote as shown.

You can find the therblig image on many other products by clicking on the link above.


What do you think about therbligs? Are you going to try to use fewer of them? Or is this silly early-20th century thinking? Share your ideas here!


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image


      5 years ago

      This was fascinating. I Had never heard of them, and am even more fascinated by the fact that someone stopped to observe and ponder on everyday repetitive movements and then came up with a most efficient way to perform each of them!

      For some reason, they reminded me of the Wii game "WarioWare: Smooth Moves". This game makes use of (all? several?) ways of holding the remote and the base, in configurations called forms. There is a practice game where you learn all the forms, and they have mnemonic names such as "mortar and pestle", "finger food", "handlebar", etc. because they mimic the hand movements of performing these activities. Anyway, it is hard to explain the game, and this might have been just some crazy association in my mind. Again, fascinating stuff these therbligs!

    • LeslieMirror profile image


      6 years ago

      looks like ancient Egypt language

    • profile image


      6 years ago

      That was all very interesting, I've never heard of them!

    • laguild profile image


      7 years ago

      Today was a success, I learned something new! Thanks for sharing!!!

    • FanfrelucheHubs profile image

      Nathalie Roy 

      7 years ago from France (Canadian expat)

      I come here because I had know idea what those Therbligs were. Now I know and it's pretty cool too!

    • Close2Art LM profile image

      Close2Art LM 

      7 years ago

      cool symbols, learn something new everyday...:)rwjr

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Fascinating - never knew about these before.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Thank you, I learned something from reading this. If you like to browse lens as I do, mine has a great educational topic with poll questions for my readers to enjoy.

    • PurplePansy LM profile image

      PurplePansy LM 

      7 years ago

      I definitely learned something new here. I've never heard of therbligs. It is interesting to think about how to do things more efficiently. I think I need to learn more. Thanks for sharing!

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Different topic, I like it, thanks.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)