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Chopin's Musical Biography in Sonata Form

Updated on November 2, 2012

Chopin Opus 35, A Musical Biography

Chopin’s Musical Biography & Mastery of Large-Scale Form

Chopin composed a Marché in 1837, stark and unadorned in melody but quite powerful. Opus 35 is built around this marché and is the foundation of the sonata. Two years after the Marché was written as it was originally called, the sonata became published 1839. The outline of the sonata is:

I Grave/Doppio Movimento

II Scherzo

III Marche funèbre

IV Finale

Beethoven’s Sonata no. 12 op 26 is often thought of as an influence to Chopin’s opus 35. It has a similar construction; the first movement is a theme and variation. The second movement a scherzo, the third movement a funeral march and the fourth movement is a finale of unrelenting sixteenth notes. It is known Chopin played and admired it. Additionally he used it a great deal in his teaching. Many of his students reported working on it. Chopin’s earlier attempt at the sonata was in 1829 with his first sonata in c minor. Haslinger the publisher agreed to publish it in 1829 but later changed his mind. With Chopin’s works now being in demand, Haslinger had it engraved to begin publication. Chopin refused to authorize its publication but learned it was already in distribution in a letter from his father. He had recently made his home in Paris, following an unsuccessful stay in Vienna. Beethoven’s presence was still larger than life in Vienna as master of the sonata form, and Chopin wanted to prove he too had mastery of the large-scale form. He did not want to be judged by a composition written while he was still a student.

Chopin gave a preview performance of the Marché and reviews of this performance state Chopin had a ghostly appearance. The solemn feeling of the Marché brought tears to the eyes of the audience and Chopin removing the word funèbre from the title of the Marché intensified the music’s painful impact.

Marquis de Custine, left the most evocative corroboration in a letter of 22 October 1838 to Sophie Gay:

‘Consumption has seized that figure and has made of it a soul without a body. To say his farewells to us…then, to finish, funeral marches that, despite myself, made me dissolve in tears'.

Opus 35 is structured as a narrative, a story where each of the movements leads directly into the next. The stormy agitated chords of the coda in the first movement become the theme of the scherzo.

The four bar introduction to the first movement marked grave could just as easily be an introduction to the Marché. The finale which is a miniature sonata in and of itself sums it all up in one of the most mystifying enigmatic pieces ever written for the piano in a minute and a half.

The exposition in the first movement depicts a stormy life of a Polish émigré going first to Vienna then onwards to Paris, France. The turbulence and agitation of the first theme group in the exposition exhibits Chopin’s inner turmoil which is strongly contrasted with a lyrical second theme group in the exposition. The sarcastic side of Chopin’s personality is shown in the Scherzo. The scherzo is fiery and displays a great deal of rage with explosive chords, which emulate the repeated tonic note as in the Marché. In Chopin’s life there was also a great deal of unrest over political problems in Poland as well as a tumultuous relationship with George Sand. Another source of controversy was his opposition to the romantic climate in which he was immersed in Paris. An ingenious composer with strong roots in classical and baroque music, Chopin’s music was also revolutionary. Lyrical trios in the second and third movements follow the classical sonata outline going to the relative major keys yet still have Chopin’s distinctive nocturne style. This put his signature on the classical sonata form. Chopin’s frail health continued to deteriorate and he was often consumed with thoughts of death, hence the foundation of the sonata is the Marché. Friends said he often stated “please make sure I am not buried alive”.

Chopin establishes mastery of large-scale composition (sonata form) with his own signature style in his only composition without dedication. Chopin’s contribution to the sonata form development is substantial in opus 35. As the sonata form developed from the Baroque period of pieces with multiple movements each with their own character this developed into the sonata form of the classical period, Beethoven first expanded the form than began to compress the form and link the movements together motivicaly. Opus 35 continues the development of the sonata form with creative mastery and development of motives, which penetrate each other and are linked together.

Chopin Opus 35

Frédéric François Chopin

Chopin on his death bed
Chopin on his death bed | Source

Chopin's Home with George Sand in Nohant 1839

Chopin's Studio Where He Spent Hours Writing Opus 35

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    • Larry Rankin profile image

      Larry Rankin 2 years ago from Oklahoma

      Wonderful analysis!

    • jamila sahar profile image
      Author

      jamila sahar 5 years ago

      Many thanks for your kind words, i look forward to reading more informative hubs ! You are also off to an excellent start ! hubpages has lots of great informative hubs !

    • profile image

      yamahaarius 5 years ago

      Excellent hub, very informative.

      Thanks for your comment on my hub, you were the first as I Just started hope to be as good as you! keep it up.

    • jamila sahar profile image
      Author

      jamila sahar 5 years ago

      many thanks, you have inspired me to write more, i believe i have found another passion in writing

    • jamila sahar profile image
      Author

      jamila sahar 5 years ago

      thank you for your kind words ! i am inspired to write more now, opus 35 is indeed quite a memorable work of art, chopin was way ahead of his time with this work !

    • jamila sahar profile image
      Author

      jamila sahar 5 years ago

      greetings, many thanks for reading, i will continue to write more !

    • jamila sahar profile image
      Author

      jamila sahar 5 years ago

      Many thanks ! It is important when learning to play the music, to understand the composer and what was going on in his life at the time of the writing. It was a labor of love learning and reading about this incredible composition that was way ahead of its time. I never tire of hearing it, as do many others !

      I enjoyed reading your hubs as well and look forward to reading more !

    • jamila sahar profile image
      Author

      jamila sahar 5 years ago

      Many many thanks ! Thank you for the compliment, I am inspired to write more.

    • jamila sahar profile image
      Author

      jamila sahar 5 years ago

      Many thanks !

    • jamila sahar profile image
      Author

      jamila sahar 5 years ago

      Many thanks ! I love this piece as well ! Definitely one of my faves !

    • jamila sahar profile image
      Author

      jamila sahar 5 years ago

      many thanks, for reading i love this piece as well and Chopin was way ahead of his time. my professor said, Chopin only wrote hits !'

    • jamila sahar profile image
      Author

      jamila sahar 5 years ago

      many thanks, i adore this piece as well, and after analyzing it and studying it, i am in awe of how ahead of his time Chopin was. i am working on more hubs, doing some research stay tuned. i enjoyed reading your hubs as well.

    • Ingenira profile image

      Ingenira 5 years ago

      Great stuff. I like to read about such article talking about the famous classical pieces. Hope to read more from you.

      Love Chopin's opus 35. He is one of my favourite composers.

    • John Sarkis profile image

      John Sarkis 5 years ago from Los Angeles, CA

      Excellent hub. Chopin is one of my favorite composers.

      voted up

      John

    • christopheranton profile image

      Christopher Antony Meade 5 years ago from Gillingham Kent. United Kingdom

      Thanks for that very well written exposition on one of Chopin's most memorable works.

      Welcome to HubPages. I hope you do really well here.

      Your start was certainly very good.

    • sweetie1 profile image

      sweetie1 5 years ago from India

      Very nicely reserched hub.. keep it up