This explains it here - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clef
Basically, it's a sign that tells the reader of music which key the music is played in and sits at the beginning of a stave (the five horizontal lines where the notes are displayed)
Clef, in music, a character placed at the beginning of the staff to determine the pitch and name of the notes. In modern notation there are three clefs: the G, or treble clef, placed on the second line; the C clef, placed on the third
or fourth line (alto or tenor clef respectively); and the F, or bass clef, placed on the fourth line. The C clef could formerly be used on any line, but only as the soprano clef, with C on the bottom line of the stave, was it as frequent as the alto and tenor positions.
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