ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Four Seasons by Vivaldi

Updated on September 26, 2014

Vivaldi's Four Seasons : A Rediscovered Masterpiece

It's an extraordinary fact; the modern world nearly didn't get to hear The Four Seasons by Vivaldi.

Although hugely popular in his time, Antonio Vivaldi's work fell out of fashion after his death in 1741. For nearly 200 years his manuscripts lay forgotten, his music unplayed.

Just eighty years ago his manuscripts were re-discovered, and amongst them was the collection of concertos known as The Four Seasons.

Since then it has become some of the most played and recorded music in the world. There can be few who haven't heard some part of the Four Seasons, even if they don't know its name; the Four Seasons, after a long silence has become embedded in our cultural consciousness.

How The Four Seasons came to be lost and found again is an amazing story, well worth the telling, so here it is now, with some recordings to listen to. I hope you enjoy the tale and the music.

Portrait of Antonio_Vivaldi

The images in this work are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Vivaldi's Winter Concerto - The bit most people will have heard at sometime, somewhere...

This is one of the most performed, broadcast and recorded pieces of classical music in the world. It gets used in commercials, background music and intros everywhere. Because it is so ubiquitous, it's easy to overlook how very beautiful it is.

'Winter' comes in 3 parts, and it is the theme from second movement that is best known, which means that the equally beautiful other 2 movements are less well known.

Vivaldi's Winter Concerto: 2nd Movement

Amazon MP3 Store - Digital Music Format

This now famous piece is written to create the feeling and images of a snowy sleigh ride. The tune is sweet and uplifting, played by a single violin to a gentle, pizzicato accompaniment that mimics the rhythm of horses trotting.

Listen or Buy A Download of Vivaldi's Winter Concerto Theme Here:

From Fame to Oblivion to Fame Again

How The Four Seasons was lost and found again

When Antonio Vivaldi died, his work had fallen out of favour. After his death any surviving copies of his vast body of work were in the hands of private collectors and his music was unplayed and neglected.

In 1926, a short of funds boarding school in Piedmont put up a collection of manuscripts for sale. Amongst them was an almost complete collection of Vivaldi's manuscripts. Fortunately the importance of this find was recognised by the Museum of Turin, and the works were purchased in their entirety.

In 1939, on the eve of the second world war, the rediscovery of this great Baroque master was marked in Sienna by a festival devoted to Vivaldi, where his works were promoted and performed publicly for the first time since his death in 1741.

In the austere days of 1951, with the country still suffering from rationing following the war, London held the Festival of Britain on the South bank of the River Thames. Amongst the many events staged was a season of Baroque music almost entirely devoted to the newly found works of Antonio Vivaldi.

And so the works of Vivaldi were rediscovered, and the Four Seasons began it's journey into the popular consciousness again after 200 years of obscurity.

So What Is Vivaldi's 'Four Seasons' ?

Put very simply, the Four Seasons is four separate musical pieces for a solo violinist and orchestra. It portrays the different weather, sounds, activities and fatmosphere of the four seasons; Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter.

Although they are four separate pieces of music, and each one is complete in itself, they are designed to be performed together.

The Four Seasons Are A Very Early Example Of 'Programme Music'

The four concertos were written in Venice, and first published in 1725, entitled Il Cimento Dell'armonia e Dell'inventione or The Contest between Harmony and Invention.

Vivaldi was a ground breaking composer in that within The Four Seasons, the four concertos, Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter are all very early example of Programme Music, whereby the music reflects and even imitates specific ideas, themes, feelings and events.

Each of the concertos reflect a season, and more specifically the kind of weather and activities that Vivaldi would have experienced living in Venice in the 18th century. There is the awakening of spring flowers, birds singing, torrential rain, blistering heat, summer storms and lightening, peasants dancing as they harvest their crops, and the icy grip of winter and sleigh rides...all portrayed in some of the most beautiful music ever written.

This magical music not only paints exquisite pictures in our minds, but also gives opportunities for solo virtuosos to vie with each other by performing thrilling extemporisations, and for chamber orchestras to engage in tour de force ensemble playing. However many times this music is heard, the listener is filled with wonder time and again at the genius of this man; Antonio Vivaldi.

The image above shows the title page of The Four Seasons By Antonio Vivaldi [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Vivaldi's Venice - Little changed since The Four Seasons was composed, nearly 300 years ago.

The Grand Canal Venice

Something you need to bear in mind when listening to the Four Seasons, is that Vivaldi was describing in music, the weather and events of 18th century Venice. So his musical descriptions of thunder laden, oppressive summer heat, and ice frozen winters may not match everyone's experience.

In fact these descriptive music pieces provide an unintentional and fascinating historical record of the climate around that part of the Mediterranean at that time.

A Bit More Detail On The Structure Of The Four Seasons

Each of the Four Seasons are composed in the form of a concerto. So there is a Spring Concerto, a Summer Concerto, an Autumn Concerto and a Winter Concerto.

Each of these concertos contain three pieces of music, known as movements. So in total, Vivaldi's Four Seasons is made up of 12 pieces of music.

The three movements in each concerto function as parts of a whole. The first movement acts as an introduction with a main theme or idea. It is followed followed by a contrasting middle movement, usually in a different tempo and or key. The third and concluding movement summarises everything and often ends in a grand flourish.

Vivaldi is no slouch when it comes to drama, grand flourishes...but more of that in a bit...

How Should The Four Seasons Be Played?

When Vivaldi wrote these pieces it was common practice for the soloist to extemporise at some point in each concerto, rather like a lead guitarist in a rock band does today. As Vivaldi was a violin virtuoso himself, he created ample opportunities for both soloists and the orchestra to show off their talents.

When the music was rediscovered and first recorded in the 20th century, music scholars were only just beginning to research the manner in which 18th century music was played and interpreted. An incomplete understanding and a reverence for a particular concept of the past, led to rather stilted and dull performances, as the manuscripts were read and played note for note exactly, without much invention or passion.

As our understanding has grown about the level of flexibility and invention that was practiced at that time, conductors, soloists and orchestra have increasingly stamped their own interpretation, style, tempo and extemporisations on the work, leading to the current plethora of interpretations.

At a concert that I attended at St. Martin in the Fields once, the soloist brought the most chilling, spooky and beautiful sounds from her violin during the Winter concerto solo that made the hairs on the back of my neck stand up. I loved it, but a traditionalist with me didn't. It is just a matter of taste.

My Three Recomended Recordings Of The Four Seasons

Vivaldi: The Four Seasons [Original Recording Remastered] - One of the very best recordings ever made of The Four Seasons.

Once hooked on the Four Seasons, people tend to collect different recordings in order to compare and enjoy the contrasting interpretations made by various orchestras, soloists and conductors.

If you are buying your first recording, buy this one. It has been around since 1990, and many think it hasn't been bettered yet. It is performed on instruments authentic to the period, with a beauty and clarity that just stops you in your tracks, stills the mind, and shows exactly what this piece is all about.

Four Seasons
Four Seasons

Antonio Vivaldi: Composer

Conductor/Soloist: Christopher Hogwood

Orchestra: The Academy of Ancient Music


Vivaldi: The Four Seasons; Fabio Biondi & Europa Galante - If you like your Vivaldi edgy, full on and remarkable, this is the one for you!

Vivaldi: The Four Seasons; Fabio Biondi & Europa Galante

People are divided about this performance. I love it. It's rivetting and fast paced, pushing the moments of light and dark to quite extreme places.

You really haven't heard The Seasons until you've heard Fabio Biondi and Europa Galante take it on, and take it places you never imagined.

Vivaldi: The Four Seasons
Vivaldi: The Four Seasons

Antonio Vivaldi: Composer

Conductor/Soloist: Fabio Biondi

Orchestra: Europa Galante


Vivaldi - The Four Seasons - I Musici - Vittorio Negri - Pina Carmirelli - This is a gem of a recording. It won't shock and surprise with furious pace and firew

I really like this recording. There is a purity and sweetness that never gets cloying or heavy.

Pina Carmirelli plays with such grace and elegance; you can feel a sincerity that can only come from a real understanding and love for the piece.

I lam thrilled when I listen to the grandstand firework solos of violinists like Fabio Biondi, but there are times when I need to hear simple grace, and this is where you can hear it.

Vivaldi: The Four Seasons
Vivaldi: The Four Seasons

Antonio Vivaldi: Composer

Conductor: Vittorio Negri

Soloist: Pina Carmirelli

Orchestra: I Musici


The Four Season Sonnets

Vivaldi composed the Four Seasons as companion music to four sonnets.There is some debate as to whether Vivaldi wrote the sonnets himself, but whether he did or not, they offer the listener a useful set of programme notes, pointing out the intentions of the composer in each piece.

Each sonnet is included here in both English and the original Italian.

"Springtime is upon us.

The birds celebrate her return with festive song,

and murmuring streams are softly caressed by the breezes.

Thunderstorms, those heralds of Spring,

Roar, casting their dark mantle over heaven,

Then they die away to silence,

And the birds take up their charming songs once more.

On the flower-strewn meadow, with leafy branches rustling overhead,

The goat-herd sleeps, his faithful dog beside him.

Led by the festive sound of rustic bagpipes,

Nymphs and shepherds lightly dance beneath the brilliant canopy of spring." spring sonnet

" La Primavera" : The Spring Concerto : Concerto No. 1 in E major, Op. 8, RV 269

"Giunt' è la Primavera e festosetti

La Salutan gl' Augei con lieto canto,

E i fonti allo Spirar de' Zeffiretti

Con dolce mormorio Scorrono intanto:

Vengon' coprendo l' aer di nero amanto

E Lampi, e tuoni ad annuntiarla eletti

Indi tacendo questi, gl' Augelletti;

Tornan' di nuovo al lor canoro incanto

E quindi sul fiorito ameno prato

Al caro mormorio di fronde e piante

Dorme 'l Caprar col fido can' à lato

Di pastoral Zampogna al suon festante

Danzan Ninfe e Pastor nel tetto amato

Di primavera all' apparir brillante."

You Can Listen To The Summer Concerto Here:

This is my favourite concerto. Don't be fooled by the slow start; this is a breathtaking piece about thunderstorms breaking out from languid and oppresive heat.

This particular performance is extremely strenuous and physical; you can see the soloist gleaming with sweat by the end.

Virtuosity and passion like this is very likely the kind of thing that Vivaldi would have approved of.

"Beneath the blazing sun's relentless heat men and flocks are sweltering, pines are scorched.

We hear the cuckoo's voice; then sweet songs of the turtledove and finch are heard.

Soft breezes stir the air but threatening north wind sweeps them suddenly aside.

The shepherd trembles, fearful of violent storm and what may lie ahead.

His limbs are now awakened from their repose

By fear of lightning's flash and thunder's roar,

As gnats and flies buzz furiously around.

Alas, his worst fears were justified,

As the heavens roar and great hailstones beat down

Upon the proudly standing corn." summer sonnet

"L'estate": The Summer Concert: Concerto No. 2 in G minor, Op. 8, RV 315

"Sotto dura Staggion dal Sole accesa

Langue l' huom, langue 'l gregge, ed arde il Pino;

Scioglie il Cucco la Voce, e tosto intesa

Canta la Tortorella e 'l gardelino.

Zeffiro dolce Spira, mà contesa

Muove Borea improviso al Suo vicino;

E piange il Pastorel, perche sospesa

Teme fiera borasca, e 'l suo destino.

Toglie alle membra lasse il Suo riposo

Il timore de' Lampi, e tuoni fieri

E de mosche, e mossoni il Stuol furioso!

Ah che pur troppo i Suo timor Son veri

Tuona e fulmina il Ciel e grandioso

Tronca il capo alle Spiche e a' grani alteri."

"The peasant celebrates with song and dance the harvest safely gathered in.

The cup of Bacchus flows freely, and many find their relief in deep slumber.

The singing and the dancing die away

as cooling breezes fan the pleasant air,

inviting all to sleep

without a care.

The hunters emerge at dawn,

ready for the chase,

with horns and dogs and cries.

Their quarry flees while they give chase.

Terrified and wounded, the prey struggles on,

but, harried, dies." autumn sonnet

" L'autunno" : The Autumn Concert: Concerto No. 3 in F major, Op. 8, RV 293

"Celebra il Vilanel con balli e Canti

Del felice raccolto il bel piacere

E del liquor de Bacco accesi tanti

Finiscono col Sonno il lor godere

Fà ch' ogn' uno tralasci e balli e canti

L' aria che temperata dà piacere,

E la Staggion ch' invita tanti e tanti

D' un dolcissimo Sonno al bel godere.

I cacciator alla nov' alba à caccia

Con corni, Schioppi, e canni escono fuore

Fugge la belua, e Seguono la traccia;

Già Sbigottita, e lassa al gran rumore

De' Schioppi e canni, ferita minaccia

Languida di fuggir, mà oppressa muore."

"Shivering, frozen mid the frosty snow in biting, stinging winds;

running to and fro to stamp one's icy feet, teeth chattering in the bitter chill.

To rest contentedly beside the hearth, while those outside are drenched by pouring rain.

We tread the icy path slowly and cautiously, for fear of tripping and falling.

Then turn abruptly, slip, crash on the ground and, rising, hasten on across the ice lest it cracks up.

We feel the chill north winds coarse through the home despite the locked and bolted doors

This is winter, which nonetheless brings its own delights." winter sonnet

"L'inverno" : The Winter Concerto: Concerto No. 4 in F minor, Op. 8, RV 297

"Aggiacciato tremar trà neri algenti

Al Severo Spirar d' orrido Vento,

Correr battendo i piedi ogni momento;

E pel Soverchio gel batter i denti,

Passar al foco i di quieti e contenti

Mentre la pioggia fuor bagna ben cento

Caminar Sopra 'l giaccio, e à passo lento

Per timor di cader gersene intenti;

Gir forte Sdruzziolar, cader à terra

Di nuove ir Sopra 'l giaccio e correr forte

Sin ch' il giaccio si rompe, e si disserra;

Sentir uscir dalle ferrate porte

Sirocco Borea, e tutti i Venti in guerra

Quest' é 'l verno, mà tal, che gioja apporte."

How Do You Like Your 'Four Seasons' Played? - The possibilities are many. Here are a few samples of the different ways the work can sound:

This is The School Where Vivaldi Worked And Wrote Most of His Music

Including The Four Seasons

Vivaldi was a virtuoso violinist, and held the post of violin master and music director at the hospital and orphanage known as the The Ospedale della Pieta throughout most of his working life for nearly forty years between 1703 and 1740. During this time he also managed to travel far, and compose for nobles and popes...the school must have valued him greatly to allow this freedom.

Venetian hospitals had long not only cared for the sick and elderly, but also acted as orphanages for illegitimate children, and provided training in trades for those in its care.

However, it became common practice for the illegitimate daughters of aristocratic families to be lodged there also, leading to very generous funding. Thus the Hospitals became extremely lavish, and came to function as the most important centres of musical excellence in Europe at that time.

If you go to Venice, one of the most magical experiences is to attend a performance of The Four Seasons in that same room.

Image of The Ospedale della Pieta at

A Typical Concert At A Hospital Academy In Vivaldi's Time

caricature of antonio vivaldi
caricature of antonio vivaldi

Who Was Antonio Vivaldi

And what was he like?

"Antonio Vivaldi was born in Venice on March 4th, 1678. Though ordained a priest in 1703, according to his own account, within a year of being ordained Vivaldi no longer wished to celebrate mass.........."read the full article here

A caricature of Vivaldi 'Il prete rosso' (The Red Priest) by Pier Leone Ghezzi (1723)

Musicians play Vivaldi by the canals of Venice - Maybe Vivaldi once stood in the same spot whilst composing The Four Seasons

I'd Love To Hear If You Enjoyed The Music

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • greenspirit profile imageAUTHOR

      poppy mercer 

      5 years ago from London

      @LouisaDembul: Thanks Mujjen. It's like all great pieces of music...completely universal. Despite analyzing it to bits when I was studying music, it still sounds fresh and wonderful every time I listen to it.

    • LouisaDembul profile image


      5 years ago

      This is one of the pieces that has got through to my daughter. I've always tried to balance the pop music she prefers with some other styles. We put on the Four Seasons when we want some happiness and peace.

    • profile image


      5 years ago

      Yes. I enjoy classical music. This music is truly beautiful.

    • blestman lm profile image

      blestman lm 

      5 years ago

      Four seasons and Vivaldi will never go out of style with me

    • Gypzeerose profile image

      Rose Jones 

      6 years ago

      This is an amazing lens. I learned a lot and enjoyed myself thoroughly. Pinned to my "Music I love board," blessed, facebook liked and added to my own lens: :)

    • greenspirit profile imageAUTHOR

      poppy mercer 

      6 years ago from London

      @anonymous: It is an extraordinary thought. I think it wanted to be found!

    • profile image


      6 years ago

      How scary to think that The Four Seasons could have been lost forever. Nice lens.

    • profile image


      6 years ago

      I really enjoyed learning more about this famous composer.

      My favorite is the winter one.

      One day I was in the Montreal subway and a young man played the "Winter" on his violin.

      It was so beautiful, I had tears in my eyes.

    • LeopoldBlatt profile image


      6 years ago

      Such a beautiful lens. Of course, its my favorite music too but I'm not at all surprised by the purple star it obtained. Well done!

    • jimconrad2 profile image


      6 years ago

      A true classic.

    • greenspirit profile imageAUTHOR

      poppy mercer 

      6 years ago from London

      @Lady Lorelei: Such a twist of fate to bring us that music; I guess it wanted to be found.

    • Lady Lorelei profile image

      Lorelei Cohen 

      6 years ago from Canada

      I did not realize that Vivaldi's beautiful music could have been so easily lost in history. It is so hauntingly enchanting.

    • OhMe profile image

      Nancy Tate Hellams 

      6 years ago from Pendleton, SC

      I enjoyed reading and learning more about Vivaldi. Thanks

    • greenspirit profile imageAUTHOR

      poppy mercer 

      6 years ago from London

      I agree. Summer is my favourite too. The 2nd movement is truly awe inspiring.

    • profile image


      6 years ago

      The Four Seasons is one of the best classical works ever written. I like "Summer" probably a little more than the others.

    • greenspirit profile imageAUTHOR

      poppy mercer 

      6 years ago from London

      I studied it my self at music college...the more you look, the more you find in this wonderful piece of music..good luck with your assignment!

    • profile image


      6 years ago

      Thank you so much for this - got an assignment on Vivaldi due in next week! This is life saving and so interesting!

    • profile image


      6 years ago

      Bravo! In two simple word: Magnificent Lens! I've enjoyed every little part of it. Thanks a lot

    • DIY Mary profile image

      DIY Mary 

      6 years ago

      Beautiful lens! I love Vivaldi's Four Seasons and had no idea until now that this collection of magnificent works had almost been lost. ("Winter" and "Spring" are my favorites, but I love them all!)

    • jlshernandez profile image


      6 years ago

      I love Vivaldi's Four Seasons and have them handy in my CD collection. Thanks for sharing the interesting info about Vivaldi which I never knew.

    • troybreimon lm profile image

      troybreimon lm 

      7 years ago

      fantastic information on Vivaldi. I never knew his four seasons was unknown for a long time like that. I is such a catchy riffing melody, id think it would have always been popular. great lens

    • Wednesday-Elf profile image


      7 years ago from Savannah, Georgia

      The music is lovely. Hubby loved classical music, having played the violin for 14 years. He would have enjoyed this story.

    • Gabriel360 profile image


      7 years ago

      Vivaldi was an amazing composer. Thank you for writing this.

    • glodny profile image


      7 years ago

      I can listen to this all the time

    • GreenfireWiseWo profile image


      7 years ago

      Love Vivaldi. Listen to him when I am blue or up for a challenge. Thank you.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      A great lens dedicated to a wonderful piece of music - great work!

    • JeremiahStanghini profile image


      8 years ago

      Absolutely love Vivaldi... I listen to him A LOT - especially when writing papers... or Squidoo'ing.

      With Love and Gratitude,


    • greenspirit profile imageAUTHOR

      poppy mercer 

      8 years ago from London

      which is strange, because church incense is mostly Frankincense, and Frankincense is fantastic for helps the lungs to breathe deeply, hence its use in religious ceremony.

    • paperfacets profile image

      Sherry Venegas 

      8 years ago from La Verne, CA

      Theodore Roosevelt also had suffered asthma associated with being in church. Just thought of that while reading this lens about Vivladi.

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      Great lens. I like Vivaldi.

    • ChrisDay LM profile image

      ChrisDay LM 

      8 years ago

      Great lens, thanks.

    • norma-holt profile image


      8 years ago

      Fantastic tribute to a great master of music. Featured on How to Make Good Music. Top marks.

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      Thanks for this amazing Lens. One of my favorite composers is Vivaldi.

    • sorana lm profile image

      sorana lm 

      8 years ago

      I just love 'The Four Seasons' and I love your lens. I am going to favourite it so I can come back to it. Thanks

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      The Storm is the best one

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      Oh my, you spent hours fashioning this just right and it shows1 An altogether delightful experience. The Four Season's have always been a favorite of mine, my Mom would play it as we were growing up. Spring gets me every time!

    • rwoman profile image


      8 years ago

      A wonderful way to begin my day!

    • dustytoes profile image


      8 years ago

      Thank you for including some wonderful videos. I especially love "Spring". Vivaldi's music is beautiful as is this lens tribute to him. Kimmanleyort's in depth review brought me here.

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      Did not realize that I was familiar with Vivaldi's work until I heard the Spring it just didn't know it was from this composer. Also had heard the Autumn one more than once. Great lens and beautifully presented.

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      Very nice work here. You've motivated me to create a Vivaldi station at This music is exquisite. I am not a big listener, but I do love it, and the radio station will make it more accessible to me. Thank you. :)

    • KarenTBTEN profile image


      8 years ago

      Very comprehensive music education piece -- blessed by a SquidAngel.

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      I am so impressed with all of your lenses and I picked this one to be reviewed today on Squidoo Lens Reviews. Stop by to see what I wrote and pick up a badge to add to your lens if you'd like.

    • Gloriousconfusion profile image

      Diana Grant 

      8 years ago from United Kingdom

      Molto bene! I shall bookmark it to listen to in detail - I have record of the Four Seasons which I love, but I hardly ever listen to my record player these days. It will be interesting to compare various versions.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)