BASIC CONCEPTS IN FOOD PREPARATION
Basic Concepts in Food Preparation
Definition of Food
Food Scientists - Complex organic compound which provides nourishment
Food and Drug Act - Any article whether simple, mixed or compounded confectionery or condiment
Biologists - Any matter eaten by man to nourish the body and sustain life.
Nutritionist-Dietitians - Any substance which when taken into the body
· Provides energy
· Builds and repair tissues
· Regulates body processes
Food Quality and Cooking
Food Quality - Composite of several criteria determined by the
· Attitudes of the customer
· Nutritional quality
· Sanitary quality
Cooking - Refers to the process and techniques of using food to have a product which is
· Aesthetically pleasing
· Microbiologically safe
· Nutritionally adequate
Popular Filipino Adage
“Ang Pagkain ay Masarap, Masutansya, Malinis at Mura Pa!”
· Visual Perception
The external characteristics of a food as seen by the naked eye include:
o Size and shape
· Odor Detection
· Taste Stimuli
o Sour - sides of the tongue
o Salty - sides and tip of the tongue
o Sweet - concentrated at the tip of the tongue
o Bitter - mostly at the back of the tongue
· Tactile sensation/Sense of touch
Six Conditions Bacteria Need to Multiply
F – Food
Food is the most important condition in order for bacteria to grow. Foods are high in carbohydrates and proteins are susceptible to bacteria.
A – Acid
Most bacteria prefer a pH ranging in 7 but they are also capable of growing in foods that have pH in the range of 4.6 to 9.
T – Temperature
Bacteria rapidly grow in the temperature ranging 40⁰-140⁰F; this range is called Temperature Danger Zone (TDZ).
T – Time
Bacteria cells can double in number every 15 to 30 minutes.
A rule of thumb in the foodservice industry is that bacteria need about 4 hours to grow to high enough numbers to cause illness.
O – Oxygen
Depending on the type of bacteria
o Some can survive only with oxygen
o Some only without oxygen
o Some with or without oxygen
o Some with oxygen in vey limited amounts
M – Moisture
Disease-causing bacteria can only grow in foods that have a water activity higher than .85 or below