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Updated on July 13, 2010

Basic Concepts in Food Preparation

Definition of Food

Food Scientists - Complex organic compound which provides nourishment

Food and Drug Act - Any article whether simple, mixed or compounded confectionery or condiment

Biologists - Any matter eaten by man to nourish the body and sustain life.

Nutritionist-Dietitians - Any substance which when taken into the body

· Provides energy

· Builds and repair tissues

· Regulates body processes

Food Quality and Cooking

Food Quality - Composite of several criteria determined by the

· Attitudes of the customer

· Nutritional quality

· Digestibility

· Economy

· Palatability

· Sanitary quality

Cooking - Refers to the process and techniques of using food to have a product which is

· Edible

· Palatable

· Aesthetically pleasing

· Microbiologically safe

· Nutritionally adequate

Popular Filipino Adage

“Ang Pagkain ay Masarap, Masutansya, Malinis at Mura Pa!”

Palatability Factors

· Visual Perception

The external characteristics of a food as seen by the naked eye include:

o Size and shape

o Volume

o Texture

o Color

· Odor Detection

· Taste Stimuli

Basic taste

o Sour - sides of the tongue

o Salty - sides and tip of the tongue

o Sweet - concentrated at the tip of the tongue

o Bitter - mostly at the back of the tongue

· Tactile sensation/Sense of touch

· Flavor

Six Conditions Bacteria Need to Multiply

F – Food

Food is the most important condition in order for bacteria to grow. Foods are high in carbohydrates and proteins are susceptible to bacteria.


Most bacteria prefer a pH ranging in 7 but they are also capable of growing in foods that have pH in the range of 4.6 to 9.


Bacteria rapidly grow in the temperature ranging 40⁰-140⁰F; this range is called Temperature Danger Zone (TDZ).

T – Time

Bacteria cells can double in number every 15 to 30 minutes.

A rule of thumb in the foodservice industry is that bacteria need about 4 hours to grow to high enough numbers to cause illness.


Depending on the type of bacteria

o Some can survive only with oxygen

o Some only without oxygen

o Some with or without oxygen

o Some with oxygen in vey limited amounts

M – Moisture

Disease-causing bacteria can only grow in foods that have a water activity higher than .85 or below


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    • MsCookM profile image


      8 years ago

      Great hub. And I agree that we should learn a couple of terminologies about food and preparation.


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