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Meat Cooking Methods

Updated on September 11, 2017
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The general term Meat, poultry is included with beef,veal,lamb and pork.

Some form of meat should be served at least once a day unless their is specific reason for its inclusion from diet.

The importance of careful handling and refrigeration of meat cannot be overestimated,for very high bacterial counts have been reported such as sausages and hamburgers,where the meat is carelessly handled (soiled hands,dirty meat grinder,etc).

Meat in general should be stored loosely covered with paper in the refrigerator as soon as it comes from the market.

2 Basic Methods of Cooking Meat

  1. Dry heat (Oven roasting,oven broiling,pan broiling and pan frying)-tender cuts of meat do not require moisture and long, slow cooking. They are usually cooked with a dry heat method, including:
    • roasting,
    • broiling,
    • pan-broiling,
    • pan-frying, and
    • grilling.
  2. Moist heat (braising,pot roasting,stewing).

It is important to select the proper cooking method for the cut of meat.

Less tender cuts of meat require moist heat cooking methods to help break down the tough connective tissues.

Moist heat cooking means moisture is added to the meat and the meat is cooked slowly over a long time; it includes:

  • braising, and
  • cooking in liquid, such as stews or other slow cooker recipes.

The method chosen to cook a certain cut of meat should relate directly to the inherent tenderness of that cut. Tenderness is determined by:

  • where on the animal the meat comes from,
  • the degree of marbling,
  • the age of the animal,
  • how the meat was stored, and
  • how the meat was prepared for market.
  • help brown the skin.

Proper Cooking Methods

In general, cuts from the loin section are the most tender; the farther away from this section the less tender the meat will be.

Roasting is a cooking method in which meat is surrounded and cooked by heated air, usually in an oven. Meat is not covered and no water is added. Follow these steps:

  • Place meat fat side up on a rack in a shallow open roasting pan.
  • Season as desired.
  • Insert meat thermometer; be sure tip does not rest in fat or on a bone.
  • Do not add water. Do not cover.
  • Roast in a slow oven at 325°F until the thermometer reaches the desired doneness.
  • Baste with drippings during cooking.

To test for doneness, use a meat thermometer. The internal temperature shows exactly how done the meat is. Look up the roasting time tables in a cookbook. The more tender cuts of meat will remain tender if cooked to rare rather than well-done. On the other hand, less tender cuts may be more tender if they are cooked to medium or well-done, rather than rare.

Broiling, Pan-broiling, or Pan-frying
The basic rule for broiling, pan-broiling or pan-frying meat is to use enough heat to brown the outside without overcooking the inside of the meat. A moderate temperature is best for broiling and frying most meats.

Broiling is cooking by direct heat from a flame, electric unit, or glowing coals. Meat is cooked one side at a time. Choose tender beef steaks, lamb chops, cured ham slices, and bacon for broiling. Use steaks or chops cut 1 to 2 inches thick. If steaks or chops are less than 1 inch thick, panbroil them.

Consult the manufacturer’s instructions for broiling since equipment varies. Usually the door is left open when broiling in an electric range and closed when broiling in a gas range.

  • Place meat on a rack in a broiler pan.
  • Place pan two to five inches from heat. The thicker the cut, the farther the meat should be placed from the heating unit to assure even cooking.
  • Broil one side until browned. Season cooked side, if desired.
  • Turn meat; cook second side to desired doneness and until meat is browned. Season, if desired.

Pan-broiling is cooking in an uncovered pan over direct heat. Fat that cooks out of the meat is drained off.

  • Place meat in preheated heavy frying pan.
  • Do not add oil or water. Do not cover.
  • Cook slowly, turn occasionally. Pour off fat as it accumulates.
  • Cook to desired doneness, until both sides are browned.
  • Season, if desired.

Pan-frying is similar to pan-broiling, except that meat is cooked in a small amount of fat.

  • Heat a small amount of oil in a skillet over medium heat.
  • When oil is hot, add meat; do not cover.
  • Turn occasionally until done as desired and browned on both sides.
  • Season, if desired.

The easiest way to tell when steaks and small pieces of meat are done when you broil, pan-broil, or panfry is to make a small cut in the meat near the bone and check the interior color.

  • Rare beef will be reddish pink with lots of clear red juice.
  • Medium beef has a light pink color and less juice than rare.
  • Well-done beef is light brown with slightly yellow juice. Fresh pork should be cooked until the juice is no longer pink.

Cooking Less Tender Cuts

Braising is cooking in steam trapped and held in a covered container or foil wrap. The source of the steam may be water or other liquid added to the meat, or it may be meat juices. Large, less tender cuts, such as chuck, round, and rump, are braised as pot roasts.

  • In a heavy frying pan, brown meat on all sides in a small amount of oil; pour off fat.
  • Season, if desired.
  • Add a small amount of liquid to the meat; cover pan tightly.
  • Simmer on top of the range or cook in the oven at 350°F until tender.

Cooking in Liquid
This method involves covering a less tender cut of meat with liquid and simmering in a covered kettle until tender and well-done.

  • In a Dutch oven or heavy pan, brown meat on all sides in a small amount of oil; pour off fat.
  • Season, if desired.
  • Add enough liquid to cover meat completely; cover pan tightly.
  • Simmer on top of the range or in the oven until tender.
  • Add vegetables just long enough before serving to be cooked.

Cooking Poultry
The type of method to use for cooking poultry depends on the bird. Young poultry is best for roasting, broiling, and frying. Older poultry requires braising or stewing methods. Either way, slow, even heat should be used for tender, juicy, evenly done poultry. Do not overcook; it results in tough, dry meat.


  • Cut chicken broiler in half lengthwise, in quarters, or in pieces. Quarter young turkey fryers or roasters, or cut in pieces.
  • Fold wing tips across back side of poultry quarters.
  • Set oven control to broil.
  • Brush poultry with one tablespoon margarine or butter.
  • Place poultry skin side down on rack in broiler pan.
  • Place broiler pan so top of chicken is seven to nine inches from heat.
  • Broil 30 minutes. Sprinkle with salt and pepper.
  • Turn chicken and brush with one tablespoon margarine or butter. Broil 15 to 25 minutes longer or until chicken is brown and juices run clear.

Poaching (in the microwave)
An easy way to be prepared for any recipe that calls for cooked chicken is to poach chicken in the microwave ahead of time and have it stored in the freezer. That way, cooked chicken is available for use in casseroles, sandwiches, and salads.

  • Place four chicken breast halves, skin side up, in a 12x8-inch (2 quart) microwave-safe baking dish, with the thickest portions placed toward the outside edges of the dish. If desired, sprinkle the chicken lightly with seasoned salt, paprika, and pepper.
  • Cover the dish with waxed paper. Microwave on HIGH for 12 to 14 minutes or until it is fork tender and juices run clear.
  • Use the chicken immediately, or cool it completely before removing the meat from the bones. Package the cooked chicken in freezer bags or containers in the amounts needed in recipes. Store in the refrigerator up to two days or in the freezer up to two months.
  • Thaw the frozen cooked chicken in one of two ways:
    • Place chicken in a microwave-safe covered casserole and microwave it on DEFROST for four to six minutes or until the chicken is thawed. Break up and rearrange the chicken halfway through thawing. When thawed, the chicken will feel cool to the touch.
    • Leave chicken in its moisture/vapor resistant freezer container and thaw overnight in the refrigerator.

Note: Chicken breasts can also be poached in a large saucepan on top of the stove. Add cold water just to cover chicken, bring to a boil, and simmer for 30 to 40 minutes or until chicken is tender. Skim off any scum that rises to the surface.


  • Place poultry breast side up on a rack in a shallow roasting pan. Do not add water. If desired, brush poultry with cooking oil or melted margarine or butter.
  • Cover poultry with a loose tent of heavy-duty aluminum foil. To make a tent, tear off a sheet of foil 5 to 10 inches longer than the poultry. Crease foil crosswise through the center and place over the bird, crimping loosely onto sides of pan to hold it in place. This prevents overbrowning, keeps the bird moist, and reduces oven spatter.
  • Insert a meat thermometer through the foil into the thickest part of the thigh muscle without touching the bone. The inner thigh is the area that heats most slowly. For turkey parts, insert the thermometer in the thickest area.
  • Roast at 325°F according to the timetable. To brown poultry bird, remove the foil tent 20 to 30 minutes before roasting is finished, and continue cooking until the thermometer registers 185°F.
  • Basting is usually not necessary during roasting since it cannot penetrate the turkey; it does


Pork and chicken preparations

Fresh pork- should be cooked until every vestige of oink coloring of the flesh has disappered,to prevent infections withTrichina spiralisis.Of all food animals,only pork and hogs are susceptible to trichinos infections,which maybe passed on human if sufficient heat is not applied to kill any parasites present.Thus,thorough cooking of all pork products in the home kitchen is essential.

Chicken-are one of the domestic birds used as food including,Geese,Ducks and Turkeys.As poultry is perishable as meat in general,it should be given same care after it breaches the home kitchen.Chicken and Turkeys may carry the salmonella organism within the body cavity or of the skin.The tight packaging of often used for poultry results in a moist surface which enhances bacterial growth,thus all poultry should be thoroughly washed and dried before cooking.


List of Cooking Recipes

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Braised pork chops recipes

Braised Pork Chops and Fennel Recipe

| Total Time: About 40 mins | Makes: 3 servings

One pan is all you need to make this fast braise of juicy pork chops and tender fennel. Bonus: The braising liquid turns into a delicious sauce that you’ll want to sop up with a piece of crusty bread.


  • 1 medium fennel bulb (about 12 ounces), stalks removed and discarded
  • 2 teaspoons kosher salt, plus more as needed
  • 1/2 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper, plus more as needed
  • 3/4 teaspoon hot paprika
  • 3 (1-inch-thick) bone-in pork loin chops
  • 2 tablespoons olive oil
  • 1/2 medium yellow onion, thinly sliced
  • 2 medium garlic cloves, thinly sliced
  • 1 teaspoon finely chopped fresh thyme leaves
  • 1/2 cup low-sodium chicken broth
  • 1/2 cup dry vermouth
  • 1 teaspoon Dijon mustard
  • 1/2 teaspoon finely grated lemon zest
  • 1 teaspoon freshly squeezed lemon juice


  1. Trim the top and bottom of the fennel bulb and cut it in half through the core. Cut each half lengthwise into 1/4-inch-thick slices; set aside.
  2. Place the measured salt and pepper and 1/2 teaspoon of the paprika in a small bowl and stir to combine. Pat the pork chops dry with paper towels, then sprinkle on all sides with the paprika mixture; set aside.
  3. Heat the oil in a large frying pan with a tightfitting lid over medium-high heat until shimmering. Add the pork chops and sear until golden brown on both sides, about 6 to 7 minutes total. Remove to a plate and set aside.
  4. Reduce the heat to medium and add the reserved fennel, onion, garlic, thyme, and remaining 1/4 teaspoon paprika to the pan. Season with salt and pepper and sauté until the fennel begins to brown, about 5 minutes. Add the broth and vermouth and bring to a boil, scraping up any browned bits from the bottom of the pan.
  5. Return the pork chops and any accumulated juices to the pan, nestling the chops in the fennel. Cover, reduce the heat to low, and simmer until the chops are firm and an instant-read thermometer inserted into the center registers 140°F, about 8 to 10 minutes. Remove the pork chops to a plate, cover loosely with foil, and let rest.
  6. Increase the heat to medium and simmer the sauce, uncovered, until reduced by about a third and slightly thickened, about 3 minutes. Remove from heat, add the mustard, zest, and lemon juice, and stir to combine. Season with additional salt and pepper as needed. Serve the sauce alongside the pork chops and fennel.

Pork Chop, Loin, Blade, Bone-in, Lean, Braised

Calories - One serving has a total Calorie count of 191 Calories. This breaks down as 100 Calories from Fat, 0 Calories from Carbohydrate, and 85 Calories from Protein. See the calorie chart below.

*Fat/Carb/Pro calories based on the Atwater (9/4/4) calculations.

Fat - One serving of this size contains 11.11 grams of total Fat. There can be several types of Fat in each food. In this case 4.03 grams are from Saturated Fat, Trans Fat is unknown, and there are 7.08 grams left over.

Cholesterol - The amount of Cholesterol in one serving is 70.55 mg.

Carbohydrates - On a low carb diet? If so, you'll like knowing that there are no Carbohydrates in this food.

Protein - There are 21.28 grams of Protein in each serving of this food.

Minerals - In one serving there are 20.4 mg of Calcium and 1.15 mg of Iron. In addition, there are 52.7 mg of Sodium and 277.1 mg of Potassium in this food.

Vitamins - This food has both Vitamin A and Vitamin C. One serving contains 5.95 International Units of Vitamin A and 0.68 mg of Vitamin C.

How to roast a turkey


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