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The Ubiquitous Rice Packs Energy: Brown and White Rice

Updated on March 17, 2015
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Roselyn has been a freelancer for 40 years. She had been a street vendor, a baker, and a cook—until she found her niche: writing. :)

Grain of Rice - Close Up (Photo courtesy by AMagill from Flickr.com)
Grain of Rice - Close Up (Photo courtesy by AMagill from Flickr.com)

What is GABA Rice?

GABA rice is germinated or sprouted brown rice. Only brown rice can be used. GABA stands for gamma-aminobutyric acid. Researches showed the many health benefits derived from GABA rice such as the following: lowers blood pressure, improves kidney function, helps fight insomnia, and many more.

Rice is the Global Cereal Grain

Rice is actually a dehulled rice grain. The rice grain is the seed of an annual (and in some tropical areas, a perennial) grass. The rice plant consists of roots, culm, and leaves – all of which form a tiller. The matured tiller produces the panicle that bears the rice seeds or spikelets.

Rice is the staple food in most countries, particularly in Asia, Latin America, and the West Indies. For the last 25 years, survey showed that one in five Americans consumed white or brown rice (half serving each day). All rice varieties do not contain gluten. Rice production is the second highest in the whole world; Corn production is the first.

Rice is rich in nutrients like protein and amino acids but still needs to be combined with other sources like meat, seafood, and vegetables. Long-grained rice remains firm when cooked; while medium-grained rice tends to be sticky. Rice is cooked by steaming, boiling, and simmering.

Cooked Rice (Photo courtesy by diongillard from Flickr.com)
Cooked Rice (Photo courtesy by diongillard from Flickr.com)
Per 100 grams / 3.5 ounces
Scientific Name
Carbohaydrates
Dietary fiber
Rice (white, long-grain, raw)
Oryza sativa
79 grams
1.3 grams
Corn (sweetcorn, yellow, raw / seeds only)
Zea mays
19.02 grams
2.7 grams
Wheat (wheat germ crude, not whole grain)
Triticum aestivum
51.8 grams
13.2 grams

Storage should protect rice from moisture and insects/vermin.

Riso or Rice (Photo courtesy by Simon Solda from Flickr.com)
Riso or Rice (Photo courtesy by Simon Solda from Flickr.com)

Rice Planting - From Seed Preparation to Rice Milling

Planting Rice Seedlings by Machine

Term
Description
Dehulled rice
called caryopsis, and also known as the ‘brown rice’, has three layers (that yield as ‘bran’ when removed): pericarp, tegmen, and aleurone
Parboiled rice
rice partially boiled while still in the husk to ease polishing and removing bran layer by hand; needs longer cooking time and less sticky
Brown rice
more nutritious than White rice but has shorter storage life; also known as ‘hulled rice’ because it is unmilled rice
Flattened rice
also called ‘beaten rice’; dehusked and flattened to form flat dry rice flakes
Glutinous rice
short-grain rice variety common in Asia; very sticky when cooked and often used to make snacks; other names: sticky rice, pearl rice, sweet rice, waxy rice, and more
Golden rice
produced through genetic engineering to create rice variety fortified with beta-carotene
Hybrid rice
rice variety produced from cross-breeding between different kinds of rice; increases yield to produce extra rice to feed more people
Instant rice
precooked and dehydrated rice; also called ‘minute rice’; similar to Flattened rice in terms of shortened cooking time
Red Cargo rice
long-grain rice variety that is unpolished like brown rice
Weedy rice
also called ‘red rice’ due to its red pericarp; considered as weeds/pests when growing in commercial ricefields because it yields fewer grains but consumes water and soil nutrients
White rice
milled and polished rice with husk, bran, and germ removed; polishing extends storage life of rice grain but removes important nutrients; buffed with glucose or talc powder
Wild rice
group of grasses growing in shallow water in lakes and streams with only the head of wild rice visible above the water; common names: Canada rice, Indian rice, and water oats
Rice Stalks (Photo courtesy by IRRI Images from Flickr.com)
Rice Stalks (Photo courtesy by IRRI Images from Flickr.com)

Rice Harvest by Hand

Manual Threshing of Rice

Rice Variety
Description
Ambehomar rice
rice variety from Maharashtra, India
Arborio rice
short-grain rice; grown in Arborio, Italy; used to make risotto and rice pudding
Aromatic rice
medium to long-grained rice. Example: basmati, jasmine, Texmati, Wehani, and wild pecan rice
Basmati rice
long-grain rice variety grown in Pakistan and India
Bhutanese Red rice
medium-grain rice variety from Bhutan; also known as ‘Red Japonica rice’
Black rice
also called ‘Forbidden rice’
Bora Saul rice
has sticky quality; glutinous rice from Assam often cooked as snack
Calrose rice
medium-grain rice grown in California since 1970s; a variety of japonica and good fof making sushi
Camargue Red rice
short-grained rice variety cultivated in Camargue, France
Carnaroli rice
medium-grained rice from Vercelli and Novara in Italy; known as ‘the king of rices’ and is much suited for risotto
Champa rice
drought resistant rice variety; originated from Champa, Vietnam but now cultivated in China
Dubraj rice
short- to medium-grain rice variety; found in Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh from India
Hatsuga Genmai rice
also known as ‘germinated brown rice’; unpolished Japanese brown rice allowed to germinate to increase palatability; considered a health food product in Japan
Japanese rice
or ‘Japonica’ is short-grain rice variety; suitable for making mochi due to sticky texture
Jasponica rice
cross-breed rice variety between long-grain Thai Jasmin rice and Japanese rice
Jasmati rice
long-grain hybrid rice variety produced through genetic engineering; a cross between Jasmine and Basmati rice varieties
Jasmine rice
also known as ‘Thai Fragrant rice’; long-grain rice variety grown in Thailand
Koshihikari rice
rice variety cultivated in Japan, Australia, and the U.S.; known cross-bred are Akitakomachi, Hitomebore, and Hinohikari
Molakolukulu rice
cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, India
Nàng Thơm Chợ Đào rice
small- and long-grain rice variety; traditional rice variety in Vietnam
Navara rice
rice variety known to strengthen the muscles and can cure arthritis; cultivated in India
NERICA rice
stands for ‘New Rice for Africa’; new rice varieties developed to improve rice production in West Africa
Nishiki rice
medium-grain rice variety grown in California; not related to this variety, Japanese Nishiki rice is used to brew Japanese wine ‘sake’
Patna rice
long-grain rice variety grown in Patna, India; suitable for curry dishes; popular in both the UK and the USA
Pokkali rice
unique rice variety grown using organic method in the coastal regions of India; resistant to salinity and famed for high-protein content
Rosematta rice
parboiled rice popular in Sri Lanka; other names: Kerala Matta rice, Palakkadan Matta rice, Kerala Red rice, or Red parboiled rice
Samba rice
small-grain rice variety with ovular shape; grown in Sri Lanka
Sasani shiki rice
cross between Hatsunishiki and Sasashigure; grown in Sendai, Japan; suitable for sushi
Sona Masuri rice
medium-grained rice grown in India; considered as one of the best varieties when less processed like brown rice
Wehani rice
brown rice variety with nice aroma; developed from Basmati rice seeds (India); with reddish-brown color and looked like wild rice
Yamada Nishiki rice
short-grain rice variety grown in Japan; popular to sake-brewers for its use in premium ‘sake’

Airplane Planting Rice in Sacramento Valley

Rice Harvest by Machine

Banaue Rice Terraces in the Philippines - Dubbed as the 'Eighth Wonder of the World'

Banaue Rice Terraces (Photo courtesy by jonrawlinson from Flickr.com)
Banaue Rice Terraces (Photo courtesy by jonrawlinson from Flickr.com)
Planting Season in the Banaue Rice Terraces (Photo courtesy by kin0be from Flickr.com)
Planting Season in the Banaue Rice Terraces (Photo courtesy by kin0be from Flickr.com)
Ripening Rice on Banaue Rice Terraces (Photo courtesy by IRRI Images from Flickr.com)
Ripening Rice on Banaue Rice Terraces (Photo courtesy by IRRI Images from Flickr.com)

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    • queen cleopatra profile imageAUTHOR

      Roselyn Mendoza 

      8 years ago from Philippines

      Thank you for the warm comment :)

    • rebekahELLE profile image

      rebekahELLE 

      8 years ago from Tampa Bay

      your hubs are so thorough and beautiful. excellent work!!

      packed with great information. :]

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