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Antihypertensive belong to a class of drug that is used in treating hypertension at an elevated level (Klabunde, 2015). Currently, there is a broad range of synthetically made drugs in the market used for the treatment of arterial hypertension that includes direct vasodilators, adrenergic inhibitors containing α- and diuretics, β-blockers, angiotensin II receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (Tamargo, Duarte, & Ruilope, 2014). The use of natural polymers offers a bioactive matrix for the design of more intelligent and biocompatible pathway for the action of the drug. This has led to a substantial path for research on the innovation of biopolymer with in vivo antihypertensive capabilities. The key qualities of the natural polymer as health care products are that they are biocompatible, fungistatic, high absorbent, non-toxic, non-allergic, breathable, and manipulatable to incorporate medications. Because of their unique properties and versatile advantages over traditional medication used for hypertension, these natural polymers are best candidates for applications in the medical field (Steinbüchel & Marchessault, 2005).
Many bioactivities have been produced including peptides with potential antihypertensive capabilities (Norris & FitzGerald, 2013). Proteins in fully functional form are colloquially referred to any polypeptide that can also be tailored and tuned to include non-peptide components such as lipids and saccharide chains (Hong, et al., 2008).
Biopolymer Based Anti-hypersensitive Medication
How can protein lower blood pressure? Scientists do not know all the facts yet, but they have found some biopolymer based hypertensive analogues via different studies as stated below;
i) ACE (angiotensin-converting-enzyme) inhibitors
The dairy protein contains certain compounds that work as primary natural blood pressure medication. Discovery of an orally inactive peptide from snake venom led to the development of Captopril, the first Angiotensin converting enzyme Inhibitor. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors inhibit the activity of ACE, an enzyme involved in the conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. This process, thus, promotes renal excretion of water and sodium (diuretic and natriuretic effects) resulting in cardiac output, reduced blood volume thereby lowering arterial pressure (Koh, Armugam, & Jeyaseelan, 2006).
Fig.1 below shows mechanism of ACE inhibitors action (Klabunde, 2015).
Medication used for the ACE inhibitors end with "pril." ACE inhibitors include the following specific drugs: benazepril, enalapril, captopril, lisinopril, fosinopril, quinapril, moexipril, ramipril(Vermeirssen, Camp, & Verstraete, 2004).
Mechanism of ACE inhibitors action
ii) Arginine Vasopressin
Another source of animal proteins especially eggs containing high levels of Arginine dilates blood vessel helpful in lowering blood pressure. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is being exploited in clinical and epidemiological studies for diagnosing the action of a patient in shock (Tayama, et al., 2007). Terlipressin (Triglycyl lysine vasopressin), a vasoactive drug, is a long acting in reducing arterial hypertension that has also been using under some further clinical considerations. In contrast to Arginine vasopressin, this analog has comparatively greater interaction for vascular receptors V1 than for renal receptors V2.
Fig.2 below shows Arginine Vasopressin-Biochemical pathway (Klabunde, 2015).
Arginine Vasopressin-Biochemical pathway
Diuretics for Hypertensive Patients
Patients with 90- 95% hypertension (essential or primary hypertension) of unknown origin are treated most effectively with Diuretics, sometimes called water pills. Antihypertensive therapy is effective particularly with diuretics when coupled with decreased intake of dietary sodium. The efficiency of this drug is derived from its capability to reduce arterial blood volume and systemic vascular resistance. The majority of the patients are treated in a hypertensive state with thiazide diuretics. Aldosterone-blocking diuretics (e.g., spironolactone, eplerenone) and Potassium-sparing are used in secondary hypertension that is affected by hyperaldosteronism, often referred to avert hypokalemia as an adjunct in primary hypertension for thiazide treatment(Musini, Nazer, Bassett, & Wright, 2014).
Current Research: Pharmacological Targets
Several new non-peptides are undergoing clinical trials or are at pre-clinical stages of development; their effects might unearth new indications for these drugs, but further research is needed. These include the blockade or interaction of vasopressor peptides. Routes of growth include endothelin antagonists; thus it blocks endothelin pressor actions located at the endothelin. A receptor site or neuropeptide Y1 receptor antagonists, that block the postjunctional vasopressor effect of neuropeptide Y, thereby providing a potential new mechanism for reducing arterial pressure. Recent research points to the market valuation of global Angiotensin-II Antagonists competitive landscape and products sales’ market size estimates for 2015. It supports decision-making in Research and Development to long term marketing strategies (Paulis, Rajkovicova, & Simko, 2015).