Autoimmune disease mechanisms; T cells and B cells activation in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) & Systemic Lupus.
An autoimmune disease is a disorder in which the immune system produces auto - antibodies to an endogenous antigen, with the subsequent injury to the tissues of the body that display this antigen. Although the connective tissues like skin, muscles and joints are susceptible to wear and tear, some people have a tendency for these tissues to undergo degenerative changes that are initiated by inflammatory and immunological mechanisms. Inflammation of the skin and joints, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, respectively, are among the most familiar forms of proinflammatory automimmune disorders, but other types of conditions have been found to have an autoimmune component, including Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, myasthe nia gravis, diabtetes mellitus, and vitiligo. The modern medical approach of autoimmine disorders rests primarily upon the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids.
There is an increasing amount of evidence that damage to the gut wall plays a role in autoimmune disease. A significantly high number of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, a rheumatoid-like condition of the axial skeleton and large joints, have been shown to have histological indications of chronic gastrointestinal inflammation.
Chronic gut inflammation damages the protective coating of IgA, the antibody that functions to maintain the integrity of the mucous membranes. As a result, the inhibition of a localized immune response allows for a decline of non-specific resistance, and an increased risk of viral, bacterial, fungal and parasite infection. The toxins that are produced by these microorganisms can inhibit liver function, and promote a heightened sensitivity to antigenic triggers such as cigarette smoke and strong perfumes.
Intestinal Permeability is when some agent or combination of agents initiates an inflammatory response in the digestive tract. persistent GI inflammation eventually disrupts the integrity of the mucosal lining of the gut, and tiny perforations allow for molecules larger than usual to pass across this barrier, including molecules from dietary protein and fats, bacteria, parasites and fungi. In response to this infiltration, an immune response is initiated and the body begins to manufacture specific antibodies to these antigens.
human tissues have antigenic sites almost identical to those substances that pass across a permeable intestinal wall. These antibodies then circulate throughout the body and “look” for more antigens. When an antigen is found, such as a tissue that has similar markers to an exogenous antigen, the antibody initiates an immune response and the tissue begins to be destroyed. this is an autoimmune disorder that can spread throughout the body.
T-lymphocytes or T cells are one of the first immune cells to become aware of the presence of foreign cells. When they notice that an infection has occurred, they release different classes of immune cofactors, or biochemical signals that activate B cells to produce antibodies and other immune cells.
By using these messages, T cells recruit additional cells and start an immune reaction. Regulatory T cells defend the body by recruiting other cells. These cells "communicate" to one another with immune cofactors, which are small bioactive signals that are produced by cells.
White blood cells known as lymphocytes arise from by mitosis of stem cells in the bone marrow. Some lymphocytes migrate to the thymus and become T cells that circulate in the blood and are associated with the lymph nodes and spleen. B cells remain in the bone marrow and develop before moving into the circulatory and lymph systems. B cells produce antibodies.
The Innate Immune Response
The innate immune system is factory installed and ready to go the minute you’re born. Cells equipped with pattern recognition receptors are ready and waiting to respond to the presence of unfriendly toxins produced by the living things that our ancestors encountered during the long course of evolution. These toxins are then processed (in ways that depend on HLA genetics) and presented to naïve lymphocytes called T cells, the lead organizers of the adaptive immune response.
The Adaptive Immune Response
The newly exposed T cells then teach B cells how to recognize and respond to the most recognizable toxin parts. If again exposed to the same toxin, B cells will produce antibodies to hunt them down.
Of the many genes involved in autoimmunity, none can be considered a real triggering factor but rather an influence to the susceptibility to a particular disease. Gut Intestinal dysfunctions leads to an autoimmune disease.
Factors that directly or indirectly cause gut irritation and inflammation include antibiotics, alcohol, caffeine, parasites, pathogenic bacteria, peroxidized fats, some food preservatives and food additives, enzyme deficiencies (e.g. celiac disease, lactose intolerance), NSAIDs, corticosteroids, refined carbohydrates, oral contraceptives and mycotoxins (from stored grains and dried fruit).
Garlic, renowned throughout the centuries for being a classic healing food, boasts numerous health-giving and preventative properties. Consumed worldwide and enjoyed as a staple ingredient for full-flavoured culinary dishes, this remarkable ‘cure-all’ herb naturally boosts the immune system, and in many cases, replaces the need for antibiotics. The heart, liver, and circulatory system also benefit from a regular diet of Garlic. A no-fuss herbal remedy to secure all-round health and well-being.
In 1912, Dr. WC. Minchin, of the Kells Union Hospital in Ireland, published Allyl Sufphide in the treatment of Lupus and tuberculosis . He described an inhaler mask containing a sponge soaked in garlic juice for the TB treatment. Inhaled garlic juice would function as a volatile germicide, which would destroy the bacterium.
Allicin is considered to be the most potent antibacterial agent in crushed garlic extracts. allicin liquid extracts were highly active against clinical isolates of multiple antibiotic resistant S. aureus,. However, undamaged garlic bulb contain not allicin but alliin which is converted into allicin enzimatically when fresh garlic is squeezed.
water extract of garlic was proven to be able to inhibit the incorporation of 14C glycine into whole cells, indicating that the primary mechanism of action is by inhibition of protein synthesis.
Researchers have found garlic to be effective in vitro against several opportunistic infections in acquired immunodeficiency disease, including candidiasis, newly developing autoimmune diseases. herpes and Cryptococcus infections, as well as Cryptosporidium, Cytomegalovirus and Pneumocystis carinii . According to Cutler and Wilson, allicin liquid extracts were highly active against clinical isolates of multiple antibiotic resistant S. aureus, as “allicin is considered to be the most potent antibacterial agent in crushed garlic extracts”. However, undamaged garlic bulb contain not allicin but alliin which is converted into allicin enzimatically when fresh garlic is squeezed.
Feeding the body natural nutritional food is vital in maintaining a healthy immune system and preventing any autoimmune disorder.
Biologic drugs for Rheumatoid Arthritis and lupus; Vedolizumab infliximab, rituximab, etanercept, adalimumab, abatacept, certolizumab, tocilizumab and golimumab (Simponi), Leflunomide, certolizumab pegol and Methotrexate (MTX) can slow down parts of the immune system. therefore, they may make the body more prone to infections.