ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Brucellosis (Undulant Fever, Malta Fever, Abortus Fever): Clinical Presentations, Diagnosis And Treatment

Updated on March 24, 2014

Etiology Of Brucellosis

Source

Clinical Manifestations Of Brucellosis

Brucellosis is an infectious disease of animals which is transmitted to man handling infective material or by ingestion of infected articles of food. Brucellosis is present all over the world, but it has been reported most frequently from USSR, Middle East, India, Europe, USA, Mexico and a large part of South America. Goats, dairy cattle, swine, sheep, dogs and other animals harbor the organisms. The placenta, fetus, milk and semen of these animals are infective to man. In most of the cases, the infection is acquired by contact with sick animals. Chronic brucella infection may occur as an occupational disease. Brucella abortus causes abortion in cattle but not in humans. Brucella melitensis infection spreads through infected goat’s milk, B.abortus is obtained from cattle and B.suis from pigs.

Pathogenesis: The organisms enter through the gastrointestinal tract or through abrasions in the skin and mucus membranes. They pass through the local lymph nodes into the blood stream to localize in the reticuloendothelial system of the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and the liver. The phagocytosed bacilli survives in the phagocytic vacuoles of leucocytes. They multiply in the reticuloendothelial tissues to produce granulomas made up of epithelioid cells, giant cells, lymphocytes, and plama cells. Less frequently, granulomas are seen in the bones, endocardium and the testes. At autopsy, the brain, myocardium, testicles and the gall bladder show perivascular infiltration by lymphocytes.

Clinical features: The incubation period is 2 to 3 weeks ( a few days to several months). The onset of the disease is gradual with vague general symptoms like fever, malaise, weakness, sweating, chills, arthralgias and backache. A few patients have abrupt onset with true undulant fever which shows wide fluctuations in temperature, extending for long periods. Spleen and lymph nodes are enlarged in some cases. Spinal tenderness, orchitis and arthritis are common. The joints are not permanently damaged. Endocarditis may occur rarely, but when it occurs it is serious. Other complications include meningocephalitis, nephritis hepatic and splenic suppuration, calcification in the liver and spleen, cholecystitis and uveitis. In some cases, pancytopenia may develop. If left untreated, the disease continues for days to several weeks and the patient recovers after a few relapses.

Clinical Manifestations Of Brucellosis

Source

Chronic Brucellosis

This infection presents with arthralgias and intermittent low grade fever. Serological tests and skin test may be positive.

Diagnosis: Clinically, the disease should be suspected when a patient presents with a typhoid like illness, lasting for more than a few weeks, especially if associated with spondylitis or arthritis. Diagnosis is confirmed by isolation of the organism from blood, bone marrow, or other tissues. The organisms are slow growing and hence isolation may take about six weeks. Special laboratory techniques are necessary to grow Brucella. Agglutinating antibodies are detectable. An intradermal skin test similar to tuberculin test uses Brucella antigen for diagnosis.

Treatment: Tetracycline in a dose of 500 mg X 6-hourly given before food along with streptomycin 0.5g every 12 hours is effective. This treatment has to be continued for 3 weeks. Cotrimoxazole in conventional doses is a useful alternative in those who fail to respond.

Prevention: Brucellosis can be eradicated from the community by first eliminating the disease from cattle by vaccination and removal of infected cattle. Pasteurisation of milk kills the organism. A live vaccine 19-B A is available for protecting persons at special risk.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)