ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel


Updated on December 31, 2019
pratik987 profile image

Diabetes is a disease in which your body can't produce insulin, which is a hormone produced by pancreas.

Diabetes affects millions of people around the world. It is a condition where body is not able to regulate blood glucose level.

Fundamentals and facts

  • It is the world’s highest prevailing disease.
  • Diabetes can be referred to as a chronic disease characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood.
  • Heart disease is a common condition in people who have diabetes.
  • Diabetes insipidus is not related with glucose and insulin
  • Diabetes insipidus occurs due to Anti‐diuretic hormone related problems
  • Diabetes mellitus is related with glucose and insulin


Diabetes may develop due to the following factors

  • Overweight
  • Family history of diabetes
  • High cholesterol
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Family history of gestational diabetes

Types of Diabetes

There are four types of diabetes

1. Pre‐ diabetes

It is the starting stage for diabetes in which all the symptoms
required to diagnose diabetes are not present.

2. Type I

It is insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). It is an autoimmune disorder. It occurs when your pancreas stops producing insulin.

3. Type II

It is the non‐insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). These type of diabetes is lifestyle related. It occurs when your body does not respond properly to the insulin.

4. Gestational Diabetes

It is a condition in which women without diabetes develops high
blood sugar level during pregnancy. This may cause problems for baby too. Controlling blood sugar levels with a healthy lifestyle will minimize the risks.


Symptoms of diabetes

Disturbance in metabolic process
Weight loss
Disturbance in fat metabolism
Slows down the healing process
Cardiovascular problems
Increase the inflammation growth.
Renal problems
Blurred vision
Feeling hungry

Complications of diabetes

  • Kidney damage
  • Foot damage
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Nerve damage
  • Eye damage
  • Hearing impairment
  • Skin conditions
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Gestroparesis
  • Gestroparesis

Psychological effects of diabetes

  • Depression
  • Stress
  • Anxiety
  • Social anxiety
  • Low self Esteem
  • Health related Thoughts

Prevention and control of Diabetes

The key to treating diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels controlled. All of the following help to control blood sugar level.

  • Eating healthy food
  • Being active
  • Taking medicine as directed
  • Taking care of your body
  • Check feet to make sure there is no nerve damage
  • Take care of teeth
  • Control blood pressure
  • No smoking
  • Blood sugar checked along with weight, blood pressure
  • Check blood sugar levels daily by using home monitoring device


Weight Training- Light Weight lifting is a best exercise for diabetic patient. Make sure it should not too heavy to lift according to your age. This exercise builds muscle mass, important for those with type 2 diabetes.

Walking- It is easy for all type of patient. It is most prescribed activities for people with type 2 diabetes.

Yoga - A number of studies proven that yoga can benefit you in several ways. It can help lower body fat, blood sugar, fight insulin resistance, and improve all body functionality.

Swimming - It is an aerobic exercise. Swimming is an ideal exercise with type 2 diabetes.


Pharmacology of Diabetes

Pharmacology of Diabetes devided in 3 section

  • Oral Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Injectables
  • Insulin

Oral Hypoglycemic Agents

Medication that increase insulin release: Sulfonylurea

Slow down the liver insulin release : Metformin

Incretin drugs

Amylin receptor agonist : Pramlintide

SGLT‐2 Inhibitors : Dapagliflozin, Canagliflozin

α‐ Glycosidase inhibitors : Acarbose

Dopa‐amine receptor 2 agonist: Bromocryptine


It is used for type 1 diabetes, in which body does not produce enough insulin. The person needs to use an insulin pump or inject the hormone. Doctors generally recommend other medications first for type 2 diabetes.


In type 2 diabetes, doctors usually prescribe metformin. It helps to control blood sugar levels by reducing the amount of sugar. Metformin is available in tablet and liquid form. Doctor usually start with a low dosage of metformin and gradually increase the dosage depending on blood sugar levels respond to the medication.

Common side effects of Metformin

  • headache
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • runny nose
  • diarrhea
  • loss of appetite
  • a rash
  • a metallic taste in the mouth

DPP-4 inhibitors

It is a new class of drug for type 2 diabetes. They increase the production of insulin in the body and help to lower a patient blood sugar levels. It is generally prescribed in combination with metformin. DPP 4 inhibitors mostly prescribed for older patients or patient having chronic kidney disease. These drugs include

  • linagliptin
  • linagliptin-metformin
  • alogliptin
  • sitagliptin
  • sitagliptin and simvastatin

SGLT-2 inhibitors

It is a new group of oral medications for type 2 diabetes. It helps to lower a person's blood sugar levels. It is generally prescribed in combination with metformin when metformin alone cannot sufficiently. These drugs are not recommended for people with kidney diseases. Drugs include

  • dapagliflozin
  • dapagliflozin-metformin
  • empagliflozin
  • empagliflozin-metformin


These drug increase the body's sensitivity to insulin which regulate blood sugar levels. It's generally prescribed when first-line treatment failed to achieve the desired result. Taking this medication at proper scheduled is very important. These medication increase the risks of heart failure and bladder cancer. Drugs include

  • rosiglitazone
  • rosiglitazone-metformin
  • rosiglitazone-glimepiride
  • pioglitazone
  • pioglitazone-metformin

Amylinomimetic drug

It’s an injectable drug, reduces glucagon secretion after meals and lowers your blood sugar.


It stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin. These drugs include

  • glipizide
  • glipizide-metformin
  • glimepiride
  • glimepiride-pioglitazone
  • glimepiride-rosiglitazone
  • gliclazide
  • glyburide
  • glyburide-metformin

Can diabetes be cured?

  • Unfortunately, there is not yet a cure for diabetes. But there are always new facts and discoveries being made every day.
  • Doctors are providing treatment that can lower symptoms of
    diabetes of all types, which can reduce pain.
  • By following a good diet and exercise plan, body may be able to use
    insulin minimally, or none at all in cases besides type 1
  • There is also research being done on “islet” transplantation.


5 out of 5 stars from 1 rating of Diabetes

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

© 2019 pratik987


This website uses cookies

As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

Show Details
HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)