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Diabetes Mellitus – Cause, Symptoms and Treatment

Updated on June 8, 2011

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus often referred as Diabetes, is a condition in which a person has high blood sugar that either arises due to less production of insulin in the body, or when the body does not respond to the insulin produced. Diabetes is one of the major health problems all over the world. If not treated or controlled, diabetes can lead to blindness, kidney failure, and nerve damage in the long run. Diabetes is also an important factor in accelerating the hardening and narrowing of the arteries leading to strokes and coronary heart disease. It is believed to be one of the main criterion's for deaths in United States, every year.

Types of diabetes

There are three types of diabetes –

  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Gestational diabetes (it may precede development of type 2 diabetes)

Cause of Diabetes Mellitus

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of pancreas and controls the amount of sugar in the blood. If the amount of insulin produced in the body is not sufficient or if the cells do not respond to the insulin being produced, then glucose will not be properly absorbed by those cells, thereby leading to the increased levels of blood glucose.

Symptoms of Diabetes

The primary symptoms of diabetes are:

  • Frequent urination (polyuria)
  • Increased thirst
  • Increased hunger
  • Weight loss
  • Blurred vision or rapid vision change
  • Increased chances of getting skin rashes

Treatment for Diabetes

The aim of diabetes treatment is to keep blood glucose levels as normal as possible. Though diabetes is not completely curable but it can be controlled to a great extent. For treating diabetes, in addition to taking medicine (insulin injection and oral medications), following a healthy lifestyle is very important. Do exercises regularly, take proper meals at proper intervals, avoid taking sugar containing food and also avoid stress. It is very important for a diabetic patient to keep a check on his/her weight. Doing yoga and meditation are also very helpful. So, just do some modifications in your lifestyle and observe the change.

Diet for Diabetic Patients

Diabetic patients should know what to eat and what not to eat.

What to Take

The patients with diabetes are advised to take the following food:

  • A high fibre diet
  • Green leafy vegetables like cabbage, lettuce, etc.
  • Bitter Gourd
  • Amla Powder
  • Onion and garlic as they are known for decreasing blood glucose levels
  • You make take fruits like apple, grapefruit and oranges.

What to Avoid

  • A diabetic patient is advised either not to take sugar or to take it in a very small quantity. If you drink more tea or coffee then take it without sugar.
  • Avoid sweets and chocolates
  • Carbohydrates
  • Avoid fruits like mango, banana, sugarcane, etc. which are sweet in nature
  • Avoid taking cheese
  • Avoid fresh fruit juices or take them in a much diluted form.
  • Avoid foods containing high amount of starch like potato.

Diabetes Mellitus is a condition characterized by the high blood sugar levels in the body and diabetic patient must know which food and diet to take to control diabetes.


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      causes of diabetes 6 years ago

      I guess it should come as no surprise that exercise and eating healthy is one of the best treatments for diabetes, as it is for some other ailments. The problem is finding a diet that suits your tastes otherwise you will have a hard time following it.

    • anujagarwal profile image

      Anuj Agarwal 6 years ago from Noida

      I am glad it was helpful for you. Thanks for dropping by.

    • Abie Taylor profile image

      Abie Taylor 6 years ago from Wakefield, United Kingdom

      Found it very useful as my friend, Jack, has diebetes and he collapsed the other day and when I looked at this I now know what to do next time. Thanks for sharing x