ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Echinococcosis And Clinical Manifestations Of Other Tapeworm Infections

Updated on April 1, 2014

Planned Surgery Offers the Best Chance of Cure for Symptomatic Cysts


Diagnosis And Treatment of Echinococcosis

Diagnosis: Strong clinical suspicion is necessary to suggest the diagnosis of hydatid disease.

  1. Blood: Mild eosinophilia is invariably present.
  2. Casoni’s reaction: Intradermal injection of 0.2ml sterile hydatid fluid leads to formation of a large wheal in halp an hour which disappears in 2 hours. This test is suggestive, but not specific since cross-reactions may occur with several other parasites.
  3. Immunological tests such as precipitin reaction with hydatid antigen, hemaglutination test using sensitized sheep red cells, etc. are positive in 90% of hepatic and 60% of pulmonary lesions.
  4. Immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA techniques are specific, though technical difficulties restrict their wide use.
  5. X-rays. The cysts are radio-opaque and are seen as sharply outlined masses in the lungs.
  6. Ultrasonography gives the most valuable information about the nature of the mass and its contents. Isotopic scans of the liver bring out cold areas.

In any case, closed aspiration is generally contra-indicated since escape of the contents may result in anaphylactic shock and secondary infection.

Treatment: Medical treatment offers only slight relief, though, recently large doses of mebendazole have been reported to be beneficial in arresting the growth of the cysts. Albendazole, a benzimidazole carbamate, given in a dose of 5 to 7 mg/Kg body weight twice a day for 5 to 6 weeks is reported to kill the hepatic cysts. The drug is teratogenic and therefore, should not be used in pregnant women. Planned surgery offers the best chance of cure for symptomatic cysts.

Prophylaxis: Care should be taken in handling dogs. Domestic dogs should be regularly de-wormed. Three courses of arecoline 4mg/5Kg body weight eliminate T. echinococcus and Hymenolepis nana in dogs. Contamination of children’s playground with dog’s feces should be avoided.

Dipylidium Caninum


Hymenolepis Nana (Dwarf Tapeworm)


Hymenolepis Diminuta


Diphyllobothriasis Latum (Dibothriocephalus Latum)

Infection by Diphyllobothrium latum is extremely rare in India. It is more common in Russia, Baltic regions, Switzerland and Japan. The adults are seen in human small intestine and it may range in length from 3 to 10 meters. The eggs are operculated. Two intermediate hosts are required for completing the lifecycle- the fresh water Cyclops and fresh water fish. Man gets infected by eating uncooked fish. The parasite may compete for vitamin B12 in the intestine, leading to vitamin B12 deficiency in the host. Niclosamide is an effective vermicide.

Hymenolepis Nana (Dwarf Tapeworm)

This is the smallest tapeworm found in man, measuring 1 to 4 cm in length. Children acquire infection by swallowing eggs. The larvae hatch out and grow in the small intestine. Noclosamide is very effective in clearing the infection.

Hymenolepis Diminuta

This tapeworm is a parasite primarily affecting rats and mice. Man is accidentally infected by consuming the infective larva present in fleas, along with cereal grains. Niclosamide is curative.

Dipylidium Caninum

This is a tapeworm seen in cats and dogs. Many get infected accidentally by consuming the infective larvae present in fleas. Niclosamide is curative.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)