ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Health»
  • Diseases, Disorders & Conditions

Echinococcosis: General Health Implications, Morphology, Lifecycle And Clinical Manifestations

Updated on April 1, 2014

Echinococcosis Manifestation On The Eye

Source

A General clinical Overview Of Echinococcosis

Infection of human tissues by larval form of Echinococcus granulosus and less commonly E. multilocularis is termed echinococciasis. The disease is worldwide in distribution. It is more common in sheep-rearing countries both in the tropics and temperate zones. Close contact between man, dog and sheep favours this infection. Echinococcus granulosus is widely distributed in India and the disease is seen endemically or sporadically.

Morphology: The adult worm is small, measuring only 3 to 6 mm in length. The scolex bears four suckers and rostellum with two rows of hooklets. There are only three segments. The last segment is mature and gravid. Dogs pass the ova in their feces. The ova resemble those of t. saginata and contain the infective embryo.

The larval form is the hydatid cyst seen in tissues. The hydatid cyst is formed when the larva reaches the tissues in the blood stream and develop further.

Life cycle: Definitive hosts are the dogs, wolves, jackals and other canines. Intermediate hosts are sheep, pigs, goats and humans. Sheep are the optimum intermediate hosts and they serve to perpetuate the natural lifecycle of the parasite.

The eggs passed in dog feces are ingested by the intermediate hosts. The embryos are liberated in the intestines and they penetrate the mucosa and enter the portal radicles to reach the liver. The larvae are arrested mainly in the liver and lungs but some may escape into the systemic circulation to reach other viscera like the brain, bones, kidneys, etc. 5 to 10 mm in diameter and these are known as hydatid cysts (hydatids= drops of water). They grow to reach large sizes and the parasite multiplies in number.

The hydatid cysts has a thick fibrous outer wall and an internal germinal layers, from which brood capsules containing budding scolices arise. These may separate from the capsule and float inside as daughter cysts. The hydatid fluid is a clear colourless fluid which is highly antigenic. On keeping it a granular deposit forms at the bottom (hydatid sand) which contains free scolices and brood capsules.

When the hydatid cysts or scolices are ingested by the definitive hosts, they attach to the intestinal mucosa and grow into adults. Each animal may harbour many worms.

Removal Of Cyst Membrane In The Treatment Of Echinococcosis

Source

Clinical Manifestations Of Echinococcosis

Infected dogs are asymptomatic. In human hydatid disease, symptoms are due to allergic reactions and mechanical compression of the surrounding tissues. Local symptoms depend on the site and size of the cyst. Clinical features are those of an enlarging mass. Commonest presentation is with hepatomegaly, hemoptysis or neurological symptoms. In about 75% of cases, the right lobe of the liver is the seat of large cysts. Lungs, brain, orbits and bones are affected not uncommonly. An interesting physical finding is the hydatid thrill which is elicitable by percussion over large hydatid cysts. The presence of free brood capsules in the fluid gives the sensation on the pleximeter finger, which confirms the diagnosis.

Allergic manifestations occur either as nonspecific allergu such as urticaria, eosinophilia and rashes. Sometimes, rupture of a cyst and entry of the fluid into tissues evoke anaphylactic reactions.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: "https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr"

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)