ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Intestinal Nematodes Infections: Diagnosis And Treatment Of Ancylostomiasis And The Clinical Features Of Trichuriasis

Updated on April 1, 2014

How To Treat Hookworm Infections

Source

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Ancylostomiasis

Diagnosis: The diagnosis is established by the demonstration of the ova in feces. Ova of A. duodenale and N. americanus are indistinguishable. The feces gives positive reaction for occult blood. The wormload is quantified by the egg counting method of Stohl. Each worm produces 30 eggs per gram of feces per day. Species identification is carried out by examining the adult worms passed after a vermifuge.

Treatment: Specific treatment can be administered directly if the hemoglobin is above 7g/dl. In severely anemic patients, proper diet and iron supplements are given to raise the hemoglobin to 5g/dl or more before administering the anthelmintic.

Mebendazols is a broadspectrum anthelmintic active against hookworm and other nematodes. The drug is safe and well tolerated with only minimal side effects. It is given in the dose of 100 mg twice daily for three consecutive days after food (for adults). This drug produces clearance of 80% of worms in a single course and almost complete clearance if two courses are administered at an interval of 2 weeks. Due to risk of teratogenicity the drug is contraindicated during pregnancy and infancy.

Bephenium hydroxyl nephthoate 5g in a single dose given on empty stomach is an effective drug. Two or three courses may be required for eradication. Pyrantel pamoate, which is also a broad spectrum anthelmintic, given in a single dose of 11 mg/Kg body weight is very effective in clearing the infection.

Prophylaxis: Personal measures include the use of proper footwear and sanitary disposal of excreta.

How To Diagnose And Treat Whipworm Infection

Source

Trichuriasis (Whipworm Infection)

Trichuris trichura is worldwide in distribution. It is especially prevalent in the tropics. The prevalence rate in India for instance varies from 5% to 25% in different communities.

Morphology and habitat: The adult worm measures 30 to 50 mm in length, the females being larger than males. The anterior three fifths is slender and filiform and the posterior two-fifths is bulky and fleshy. The worms are seen in the caecum and large intestine with their anterior ends introduced into the mucosa to suck blood. The eggs are barrel-shaped, translucent, 20 to 50u in size, thick walled, and possess knob-like ends.

Life Cycle: The eggs become embryonated and infective in three weeks after being passed. They are ingested. Hatching occurs in the small intestine. The larvae get attached to the intestinal villi and after variable periods migrate to the large intestine where they mature in about 3 months. Though, not exactly known, the lifespan of the worm is probably several years. The adults suck and lead to blood loss, though in a smaller degree than hook-worms. With the elimination of hookworms from many communities, whipworms have emerged as a major cause of intestinal blood loss.

Clinical Manifestations Of Trichuriasis

Mild infections pass unnoticed and the diagnosis is made by routine examination of feces. Heavy infection, which is common in children and certain susceptible subjects, is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and other evidences of colitis. Concurrent infection with amoebae and other helmonthes like round worms and hookworms is common. Heavy infections may lead to malabsorption state.

Diagnosis: Demonstration of the eggs in feces establishes the diagnosis. Adult worms may be seen hanging from the walls of the colon on endoscopy.

Treatment: Mebendazole is the drug of choice. Administration of 100 mg tablets twice daily for three consecutive days produces a cure rate of 50 to 60%. Repeated courses improve the clearance rate. This drug should be used with caution in children and pregnant women.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)