ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Measles (Rubeola): Health significance As an Enanthema Infection, Pathology And Clinical Presentations

Updated on March 25, 2014

Rash And Fever In Highly Contagious Measles


A General Overview And Pathology Of Measles

Measles or Rubeola (red spots- Arabic) is an acute exanthematous febrile illness caused by a specific virus of the paramyxovirus group affecting children more. It is an RA virus varying in size from 150 to 300 nm.

Pathogenesis and pathology: Man is the only natural host. The disease may occur in localized or wider outbreaks once in 2 to 3 years, especially during spring. The virus is present in the nasopharyngeal secretions and infection is by droplets. Portals of entry are the respiratory mucous membrane and the conjunctiva. The period of infectivity starts 5 days after the exposure of the virus and lasts until 5 days after skin eruptions have appeared. Infants do not generally suffer, presumably because of the persistence of maternal antibodies in them.

The virus multiplies in the epithelium of the respiratory tract and then causes viremia. Hematogenous spread occurs to various tissues. The virus can be isolated from blood, conjunctiva, lymphoid tissues and secretions of the respiratory tract for a few days before and for 1 or 2 days after the appearance of rashes and from the urine as long as 4 days after the rash.

The mucous membrane lesions (enanthem) known as Koplik’s spots seen in the cheeks, consist of vesicles and necrotic epithelium. Microscopically, the lesions show cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions, giant cells and intercellular edema. Aggregates of virons in the affected cells can be demonstrated by electron microscopy. Multinucleated giant cells with acidophilic nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions (Warthin Finkel day cells) may be found in the hyperplastic lymphoid tissues of lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen and thymus. Chromosomal breaks may be seen in leucocytes. Epithelium of the respiratory tract is disrupted and this favours secondary bacterial infection. Lungs show interstitial pneumonia with giant cell infiltration. In patients, who develop encephalomyelitis, the brain shows focal hemorrhage, congestion and perivenous demyelination.

Koplik Spots In Measles


Clinical manifestations Of Measles

Incubation period is 9 to 11 days. The initial manifestations are malaise, irritability, high fever, conjunctivitis with excessive lacrimation, edema of the eyelids, photophobia, hacking cough and nasal discharge. These symptoms last for 3 to 4 days (up to 8 days) and then the rashes start. Koplik’s spots appear as small, red irregular lesions with bluish-white center on the mucous membrane of mouth 1 to 2 days before the skin rash. They are best seen in the buccal mucosa opposite the upper molar teeth. Lesions similar to them may occur in the conjunctiva and intestinal mucosa. The rashes are red and maculopapular, first, appearing on the fore-head and behind the pinna, later on spreading down to the face, neck, trunk and limbs. Maximum affection is on the face and shoulders. These rashes persist for about 3 days and disappear in the order in which they appeared. The disease becomes more severe in adults with whom complications are likely to be more. The general symptoms disappear 1 to 2 days after the appearance of skin rash. Cough may persist throughout the illness.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)