ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Paratyphoid Fevers And Non-typhoid Salmonella Infections: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis & Treatment

Updated on March 24, 2014

Characteristics Of Non-typhoid Salmonella Infections

Infection is acquired through food and water. Many animals such as chicken, ducks, cattle, sheep, horses, dogs, cats and rodents harbor these organisms as commensals. Chicken and duck eggs constitute the largest reservior of infection.
Infection is acquired through food and water. Many animals such as chicken, ducks, cattle, sheep, horses, dogs, cats and rodents harbor these organisms as commensals. Chicken and duck eggs constitute the largest reservior of infection. | Source

General Introduction As Infectious Ailments

These are produced by Salmonella paratyphi A and B respectively. The illness generally resembles typhoid in clinical pattern, though the toxemia and complications are milder. The duration of illness is shorter and the moratlity is lower in paratyphoid. Diagnosis is made by isolating the organisms and demonstrating the antibody response by widal reaction. Principles of management are the same as for typhoid.

Non-typhoid Salmonella Infections

These are produced by S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium which are transmitted from animals to man. The lesions include acute enterocolitis, bactermia and localized inflammation.

Epidemiology: Infection is acquired through food and water. Many animals such as chicken, ducks, cattle, sheep, horses, dogs, cats and rodents harbor these organisms as commensals. Chicken and duck eggs constitute the largest reservior of infection. Egg powder, milk powder, fish and mussels grown in contaminated water have acted as the sources of localized outbreaks. Humans develop convalescent or asymptomatic carrier state and excrete the organisms for long periods.

Pathology: After gaining entry, the organisms multiply in the small intestine and colon and produce inflammation of the lamina propria of the villi. The lymphoid follicles are enlarged and the mesenteric nodes become swollen. Organisms enter the blood stream to produce bacteremia and metastatic lesions. Conditions like sickle cell anemia and other hemoglobinopathies predispose to the development of recurrent Salmonella infections. Osteomyelitis is common in them.

Clinical Manifestations Of Enterocolitis

This is also known as Salmonella food poisoning. It is characterized by fever, with abdominal pain and diarrhea lasting for 3 to 5 days. The incubation period is generally 8 to 24 hours, sometimes it goes up to three days. Nausea and vomiting are ear
This is also known as Salmonella food poisoning. It is characterized by fever, with abdominal pain and diarrhea lasting for 3 to 5 days. The incubation period is generally 8 to 24 hours, sometimes it goes up to three days. Nausea and vomiting are ear | Source

Clinical Manifestations

Enterocolitis: This is also known as Salmonella food poisoning. It is characterized by fever, with abdominal pain and diarrhea lasting for 3 to 5 days. The incubation period is generally 8 to 24 hours, sometimes it goes up to three days. Nausea and vomiting are early symptoms. The nature of stools varies from blood stained semisolid feces to watery diarrhea. Even after recovery, a malabsorption state may persist for several days. Microscopy of the feces shows cellular exudates and the organisms can be cultured from feces.

Salmonella bacteremia: This is characterized by prolonged or intermittent fever associated with rigor and chills and a positive blood culture. Gastrointestinal symptoms may or may not precede the onset of bacteremia. Localized lesions develop in 25% of cases. These are bronchopneumonia, lung abscess, pleurisy, empyema, pericarditis, endocarditis, nephritis, arthritis, osteomyelitis and meningitis.

Diagnosis: Salmonella bacteremia should be suspected in all prolonged fevers and the diagnosis should be established by blood cultures. The WBC count is usually normal but leucocytosis occurs when localized suppuration develops.

Treatment: Salmonella gastroenteritis is managed on the same lines as other severe diarrheal diseases, the mainstay of treatment being replacement of fluids and electrolytes and supportive therapy. Antibiotics do not probably alter the course of the disease and hence their role in treatment is doubtful. Bacteremia or localized infections are treated with systemic antibiotics as for typhoid fever.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • married2medicine profile imageAUTHOR

      Funom Theophilus Makama 

      4 years ago from Europe

      Thank you so much Eiddwen.. I really appreciate your encouraging comments!

    • Eiddwen profile image

      Eiddwen 

      4 years ago from Wales

      You are so knowledgeable on medical matters and are able to create interesting and very useful hubs.

      These will prove to be so useful to many. The poor little one's hands in the first picture looked so so painful .Voting up and sharing.

      Eddy.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)