ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Psychopathology

Updated on March 10, 2020

Witchcraft or Mental Illness?

Psychopathology

Originally, those with mental illness were thought of as witches. As witches they were imprisoned or tortured. St. Vincent de Paul placed his life in danger by his declaration that mental illness and physical illness are comparable. He further requested as Christians, the people should treat the two equally. The founder of modern psychopathology, Johann Weyer began his studies as physician. Emil Kraepelin in 1883 influenced the biological view, through his text Compendium der Psychiatric. The book referred to pathology of the brain in mental disorders and devised a system to classify mental disorders, the beginning of what is known today as DSM-IV-TR. Research taught him about patterns in symptoms and manifestation of mental illness through the patterns. He viewed disorders much the same way as physicians view the measles, with a predictable course of illness. Freud developed a psychopathology theory through psychodynamics. From his studies hypnosis, and psychoanalysis developed as a treatment for mentally ill patients.

Evolution

Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth century the field continued to develop as a result of humanitarian and scientific advances. During this time, mental patients became accepted as stricken with an illness and we provided required assistance. Knaepelin developed a system to clarify psychiatric patients. He also contributed to the establishment of the importance of brain pathology, which aided family as well as individuals. Freud developed the theory of psychopathology. Currently the field of psychopathology is undergoing a new development as the DSM-IV is revised (Alloy, 2005). Mesmerism proceeded Freud’s work in understanding of mental disorders.

Over a span of fifty years, he observed, treated, and developed the psychopathology theory, known as psychoanalysis. The theory placed emphasis on unconsciousness. His theory evolved into new psychoanalytic perspectives. In the last part of the nineteenth century this branch evolved from experimental to clinical psychology as a means of intervening with abnormal behavior. Behaviorism, through Pavlov’s work in the laboratory furthered treatment for disorders. Gradually mental patients have been accepted as requiring medical attention. Application of biomedical methods into treatment as well as additional research into sociocultural, biological and psychological roots of psychopathology increased. William Tuke, Benjamin Rush, Philippe Pinel, and Dorthea Dix furthered awareness and acceptance (Alloy, 2005).

Theoretical Viewpoints

Several psychologists attempt to theorize about abnormal behavior; originally, Freud’s psychoanalytic theory was the explanation. He attempted to explain abnormal behavior focusing on questions dealing with the libido. Freud’s daughter Anna’s theory emphasized the ego-defense reactions in abnormal as well as normal behavior. Bowlby’s theory of attachment defines how abnormal child development leads to psychopathology in adulthood. Those supporting interpersonal perspective support the development of an interpersonal functioning system for use in diagnosis. The new system, they believe would aid in validity and reliability of the diagnosis. The perspective focuses on cultural and social aspects as defining behavior. Behavioral theorists attribute learning or failure to learn behavior to the development of abnormal behaviors. Cognitive behavioral theory explains abnormal behavior by concentrating on distorted processing of information and thoughts. Distorted thoughts are responsible for leading to behavior and emotions that are maladaptive. Schemas developed negatively in childhood result in abnormal behaviors later in life (J. Butcher, 2010).

Biological, Psychosocial, and Socio-cultural Models

As early as the 18th century, physiology, anatomy, chemistry, neurology, and medicine advances assisted in understanding as well as identification of how biology affects mental and physical conditions. During the 19th century, biology assisted in treatment and understanding of psychopathology. The discovery of syphilis of the brain’s underlying organic factors contributed to the understanding of mental illness (Alloy, 2005). Through biological studies a determination arrived at concerning how biology affects the development of mental disorders. Abnormalities within the hormonal and neurochemical systems, as well as vulnerabilities in genetics, temperament, and neural plasticity and brain dysfunction must be considered as impacting developmental process (J. Butcher, 2010).

When diagnosed, patients with an Axis IV present with environmental and psychosocial problems to include occupational, social, environmental and other problems occurring outside of them. Bipolar patients are particularly vulnerable to psychosocial stimuli than other patients. Sociocultural viewpoint focuses on how the sociocultural aspects contribute to mental disorders. For instance behavior is reliant upon the environment the person spends their time in throughout their lifespan. According to this society is responsible for the manifestation of mental disorders (J. Butcher, 2010).

Conclusion

The development of psychopathology may be a result of behavior, socio economic background, or simply genetics. Diagnosis of disorders has evolved throughout the years. Determination of the origination of psychopathology has yet to be determined, although several factors to include psychosocial, sociocultural, biology have accepted the disease and are able to assist using that knowledge in diagnosis and possibly treatment options. Freud initially determined which of his patients were mentally ill and which were placed in his care. Several schools of thought or theory exist to determine the causes of psychopathology, behaviorists, psychoanalysts, and theory of attachment. Biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural methods of defining mental disorders can work together for determination of mental illness. Over all, the discussion ends as most have since entering a field of psychology and begins with someone asking about the evolution of the disease, the progression, and treatment. Treatment has developed into some outpatient treatment instead of patients living in substandard living conditions away from family and friends.

References

Alloy, L. R. (2005). Abnormal psychology: Current perspectives (9th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

J. Butcher, S. M. (2010). Abnormal psychology (14th ed.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • gsidley profile image

      Dr. Gary L. Sidley 

      9 years ago from Lancashire, England

      Interesting hub. I also have an interest in the history of psychiatric practice, albeit an increasingly critical one.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://corp.maven.io/privacy-policy

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)