ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Smallpox: Complications, Diagnosis, Treatment And Absolute Prevention

Updated on March 25, 2014

The Health Implications Of Small Pox On Various Body Parts

Source

Complications And Diagnosis Of Small Pox

Complications

Secondary infection by staphylococci occurs during the stage of postulation. This may lead to septicemia, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, otitis media and pyelonephritis. In the eye, vesicles in the cornea may suppurate and lead to panophthalmitis and blindness. Smallpox was a common cause of blindness in India till some decades agon.

Neurological complications include demyelinating lesions such as encephalitis, encephalomyelitis and peripheral neuritis. Laryngeal edema may occur, leading to respiratory obstruction.

Osteomyelitis variolosa: In this form of destructive osteomyelitis, the metaphyses are infected with the virus during the phase of viremia, but symptoms are late to develop. Destruction and detachment of the epiphyses lead to permanent bone and joint deformities which persist in later life.

Course and prognosis: Till the middle of this century, smallpox used to be a major killer among children with a mortality of 20 to 80% among unvaccinated subjects. Death is due to severe toxemia or secondary infection.

Diagnosis

Clinically, smallpox should be suspected when an unvaccinated person gets high fever with prodroma and rash occurring on the third day. The distribution and progress of the rash strengthens the diagnosis. Since the world has been declared free of smallpox, physicians have to be alert to detect initial cases and subjects them to thorough laboratory investigations. By international agreement, reporting of fresh cases to the health authorities carries a cash award. Chickenpox, drug rashes and erythema multiforme are to be differentiated from small pox. Rickettsial pox and pustular syphilis may resemble mild cases of smallpox sometimes.

Laboratory diagnosis:

  1. Demonstration of the virus in materials from vesicles or crusts by electron microscopy.
  2. Identification of Guarnieri bodies from the vesicular material.
  3. Demonstration of viral antigen by complement fixation or gel precipitation test using material from any stage of the lesion or blood in the pre-eruptive stage.
  4. Isolation of the virus.

Treating Small Pox

Source

Treatment And prophylaxis Of Small Pox

Treatment

The treatment is mainly supportive. Antibiotics are used when secondary bacterial infection occurs. After exposure, the attack can be prevented by administering methisazone in a dose of 1.5 to 3g twice daily for four days. Methisazone offers protection in unvaccinated individuals but it has no curative effect when the disease is manifest. Vaccines immunoglobulin can be administered and it has a protective role. Early notification of cases, strict barrier nursing and large scale immunization of the surrounding population should be undertaken to prevent the spread of the disease. Since the vaccine is not at present available for regular use, vaccination program have to be undertaken by the appropriate health authorities.

Prevention

Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent smallpox. It was introduced by Edward Jenner on May 14, 1796. Since the world is declared free of smallpox, regular vaccination of infants is not insisted upon at present. The vaccine contains killed or frozen dried vaccinia virus. Though generally safe, rarely complications occur. These include generalized vaccinia, secondary infection, eczema vaccinatum, progressive vaccinia (Vaccinia gangrenosa) and post-vaccinial encephalitis.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)