ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Streptococcal Infections: Health Significance As Bacterial Cocci Causing Systemic Diseases

Updated on March 22, 2014

The Neck, Showing Slight Lymphadenitis As A Streptococcal Infection

Source

Streptococcal Infections

Streptococci are among the commonest bacterial pathogens of man. They produce several pathological lesions. They are Gram- positive cocci, spherical or oval in shape, 0.5 to 1u in diameter and are arranged in chains. Streptococcus pyogenes produces several toxins and enzymes.

Pathogenesis And Pathology: Streptococcal infections cause the following pyogenic lesions:

  1. Tonsillitis
  2. Pharyngitis
  3. Scarlet fever
  4. Local extension from tonsillitis giving rise to complications like peritonsillar absecesses, sinusitis, otitis media, mastoiditis, and meningitis.
  5. Female genital tract infections- puerperal sepsis, pelvic cellulitis, peritonitis and septicemia
  6. Skin infections- erysipelas, impetigo, infection of wounds and burns
  7. Lymphadenitis
  8. Abscesses in different parts of the body
  9. Acute rheumatic fever
  10. Acute glomerulonephritis

Comparison Of Rheumatic Fever And Glomerulonephritis

 
Acute Rheumatic Fever
Acute Glomerulonephritis
Site of Infection
Throat
Throat or skin
Prior sensitisation
Essential
Not necessary
Serotypes of Streptococcus pyogenes
Any
Nephritogenic types only (12, 44, 2, 52, 55, 57, 4)
Immune response
Marked
Moderate
Complement level
Unaffected
Lowered

Streptococcus viridians: This produces subacute bacterial endocarditis. The enterococci can cause urinary tract infection and subacute bacterial endocarditis.

Physical Presentations Of Group A Streptococcal Infections

Source

Infections

Group A Streptococcal Infection

Streptococci of Lancefield’s group A (S. pyogenes) produce several infective lesions in man. The incubation period ranges from 2 to 4 days.

Streptococcal Pharyngitis: This presents with abrupt onset of sore throat, dysphagia, head ache, malaise, anorexia and fever. The posterior pharyngeal wall is red and edematous. The tonsils are enlarged, red and covered with yellowish exudates, which can be easily removed with a swab. Anterior cervical lymph nodes are enlarged and tender. The disease runs a short course, lasting for about a week.

Scarlet Fever: This is characterized by the occurrence of an erythematous rash on the second day of illness. The primary lesion is in the throat. The rash is seen over the neck and trunk, the palms and soles are generally spared. The rash blanches on pressure. The rash subsides with extensive desquamation after 4 to 5 days.

Scarlet fever has to be differentiated from other exanthemas, drug rashes, allergic dermatitis and infectious mononucleosis. Diagnosis from the exudates obtained from the tonsilar crypts.

Treatment: Streptococcal lesions respond promptly to penicillin. A single intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin G 600,000 units for children less than 25 Kg and 1.2 million units for all others is enough to clear the infection. Phenoxymethyl penicillin (penicillin V), 250 mg orally four times daily for 7 to 10 days is also equally effective. Erythromycin, 250 mg; 6 hourly for 7 to 10 days is a suitable alternative for subjects allergic to penicillin. If suppuration develops, surgical drainage of the pus may be required.

Erysipelas: Erysipelas is an acute spreading infection of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue by streptococci. Face is commonly affected. The disease sets in abruptly with malaise, chills, headache and vomiting. The skil lesions are erythematous with clear advancing margins which may show vesicles. The part is tender and local lymph node enlargement may occur. If left untreated, the lesions rapidly spread. In immunocompromised individuals (e.g, diabetics) septicemia may develop.

Pyoderma: These lesions are also known as streptococcal impetigo. Deeply ulcerated impetigo is known as ecthyma. The organisms enter through abrasions on the skin. There is regional lymphadenitis. The lesions are localized and systemic symptoms are rare. Streptococcal pyoderma may lead to acute glomerulonephritis.

Cellulitis: This is spreading inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue due to entry of the organism through the abrasions of the skin. There is pain, tenderness, erythema, fever and oftenregional lymphadenopathy.

Lymphangitis: Acute lymphangitis may follow local trauma. This condition presents in the form of linear red streaks radiating from the site of entry to the draining lymph nodes.

Streptococcal bacteremia: Irrespective of the focus of entry and primary lesion, streptococcal bacteremia gives rise to metastatic foci of infection such as suppurative arthritis, oesteomyelitis, peritonitis, endocarditis, meningitis, or visceral abscesses.

Puerperal Sepsis: This streptococcal infection follows abortion of childbirth.

Pneumonia And empyema: Streptococcal pneumonia usually follows a viral infection and it manifests as a bronchopneumonia. In many cases, empyema develops as a complication.

Streptococcus Viridans As A Group B Streptococcal Infection

Source

Group B Streptococcal Infections

Group B streptococci are seen in the female genital tract, throat and rectum. Common lesions in the mother include chorioamnionitis, septic abortion, and puerperal sepsis. In the newborn, it causes neonatal sepsis and meningitis. In the adult, it may cause urinary tract infection in both sexes. Hematogenous spread may result in endocarditis, pneumonia, empyema, meningitis and peritonitis. All the strains are sensitive to penicillin.

Streptococcus Viridans: This is a commensal found in the oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract, but at times it may become invasive and produce subacute bacterial endocarditis and periodontal infection. It is implicated in the production of dental caries. Anaerobic streptococci are present in the mouth, vagina and intestinal tract. These may lead to infection under certain circumstances.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)