ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Clinical Significance Of Other Diarrhea Diseases To Human’s Health

Updated on March 24, 2014

Acute Diarrhea Diseases


Acute Diarrheal Diseases Of Children

Acute diarrheal diseases are the major killers of infants and young children, accouting for 30 to 50% of deaths below the age of 5 years. In the developing regions, especially in Africa, 2 million children die annually from diarrheal disease other than cholera. Disorders in which three or more watery stools are passed daily with or without vomiting are included under this group.

Etiological agents: The most well known pathogens are shigella, salmonella, enteropathogenic E.Coli, Vibrio cholera, El tor vibrios E. histolytica and G. lamblia and these account for only about 20% of the total, the remaining 80% being due to other agents which number about twenty. Diarrhea results either from enterotoxin or through invasive mechanisms. The clinical picture and management are the same as described under cholera.

Clinical Manifestations Of Viral Gastroenteritis


Viral Gastroenteritis

Viruses account for the majority of diarrheal episodes in infants and young children in both developed and developing countries. These viruses include rotavirus, Norwalk and Norwalk-like agents and a number of other viral agents whose causative role is not yet clearly established.

Clinical features: Rotavirus affects mainly infants and young children aged 6 months to 2 years. Incubation period ranged from 1 to 7 days but usually it is less than 48 hours. Vomiting occurs early and it precedes diarrhea. Diarrhea extends over 5 to 7 days but virus is shed up to 10 days. Asymptomatic infections and mild disease may occur during outbreaks. Breast milk may jave a protective role due to presence of maternal IgA antibodies.

Treatment: Rotavirus diarrhea responds to standard rehydration therapy as described under cholera.

Norwalk And Norwalk-Like Agents


Norwalk And Norwalk-Like Agents

Since 1972, these viruses have been identified as the cause of outbreaks of generally mild gastroenteritis occurring in the school, community and family settings. Norwalk agent was first isolated from Norwalk in Ohio state (USA). Virus particles resembling Norwalk agent morphologically, but serologically distinct are also identified as causing outbreaks of gastroenteritis.

Other viral pathogens include adenovirus, astrovirus, calcivirus and minirotavirus. These produce diarrheas of varying severity.

Diarrhea Routine Vaccination


Campylobacter Jejuni

Epidemiology: Campylobacter jejuni (previously known as vibrio fetus) is found in the intestines of birds, particularly in chicken, turkeys, wild birds and also in dogs, cats and calves. The organisms are spread by fecal-oral route. They are acquired from sick puppies, kitten or infected cases. Campylobacter jejuni is ubiquitous and has been isolated as the pathogen in several outbreaks. Normal gastric acidity kills the organisms.

Pathogenesis: Campulobacter jejuni invades tissues and produces diffuse blood exudative enteritis and non-specific colitis. No enterotoxin has been isolated. Bacteremia and metastatic lesions may complicate the primary lesion.

Clinical Features: Incubation period is 1 to 7 days. Main symptoms include watery or bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, malaise, fever, vomiting and constitutional symptoms. The severity may vary. On an average, there may be 8 to 10 bowel movements in a day. Recovery occurs within a week. Rarely, a prolonged illness resembling typhoid and meningitis may develop.

Treatment: Since the infection is self- limiting, fluid and electrolyte replacement from the mainstay of therapy. The organisms respond to erythromycin given orally in a dose of 250 mg every 6 hours. Resistant cases respond to tetracycline in a dose of 250 to 500 mg every 6 hours. For bacteremia, gentamicin or chloramphenicol are given systematically.

Prevention: The organisms are destroyed by proper cooking and storage of animal foods, pasteurization of milk and provision of protected water supply, chlorination of water kills the organisms.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)