ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Different types of dementia

Updated on August 1, 2013
Dementia
Dementia

Dementia is defined as acquired global impairment of intelligence, memory and personality without impairment of consciousness (Lishman, 1998). It is usually progressive disease. Dementia is caused by various types of diseases.

In dementia cognitive functions such as memory, language, abstract thinking and judgment, movements, visuospatial skills and personality are deteriorated. In dementia consciousness is normal except in lewy body dementia.


What are the various types of dementia?

Alzheimer’s disease

This disease accounts for 50 -60% of all dementias. Prominent features are memory loss, especially short term memory, difficulty in speaking, difficulty in walking, and behavioral disturbances such as wandering.

In addition, patients with Alzheimer’s disease show impaired sense of smell in the early course of the disease. It is a progressive disease and usual life expectancy is 5 – 8 years.

Dementia Brain
Dementia Brain | Source

Vascular dementia

This is the second commonest cause of dementia. Around 20 -25 percent of the demented patients have vascular dementia. It is disease characterized by small brain infarctions caused by atherosclerosis. In these patients there are other co-existing vascular diseases such as heart attacks and peripheral vascular disease in the limbs.

Sudden personality change is the usual early presentation. For an example person with previous good social character may speak filth words in public. In addition, these patients show labile mood. However, there insight seems to be preserved. Memory loss usually occurs late. Disease is progressed in stepwise manner. It is more common in men with history of heavy smoking.

Lewy bodies
Lewy bodies

Dementia with lewy bodies

Around 15 -20% of patients with dementia are in this category. This disease is characterized by fluctuating alertness, symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (rigidity, slow movements, resting tremors), visual hallucinations and frequent falls.

This disease is characterized by the presence of lewy bodies inside the affected neurons. These lewy bodies are also seen in the neurons affected by Parkinson’s disease. Patients get this illness usually before 70 years.

Other types of dementias are Fronto temporal dementia characterized by change of behavior, speech problems (Expressive dysphasia), and early loss of insight and early manifestation of primitive reflexes such as sucking reflex seen in infants.

In addition, Hungtington’s disease, Prion diseases and normal pressure hydrocephalus can cause dementia. Prion diseases are transmissible and common disease is Creutzfeldt–Jakob’s disease. Normal pressure hydrocephalus is the only treatable type of dementia.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • DonnaCosmato profile image

      Donna Cosmato 

      6 years ago from USA

      What an interesting and informative hub on the different types of dementia. I'm sharing this with my Facebook and Twitter friends as I feel that this is a subject that everyone is interested in (and voted up).

    • njmanura profile imageAUTHOR

      Dr Manura Nanayakkara 

      6 years ago from Sri Lanka

      Very good question, depression can cause apparent memory impairment and it is called depressive pseudodementia. In dementia, person forgets immediate memories but remembers thins happened long time ago. In depression, all the memories are equally affects. It occurs due to slowness in thinking that is seen in depression. Depressive pseudodementia improves when the depression is treated. However, sometimes it is difficult to differentiate both conditions without proper cognitive assessment.

      Hope this helps

    • wordpaintrix profile image

      wordpaintrix 

      6 years ago from Huntington, WV

      very well written and informative. Can major depression cause dementia? symptoms like not being able to remember simple numbers,series of directions, spatial reasoning deficits,and time distortion? Yet the person is aware of their cognitive deficiencies and make a determined compensation to be able to function in a nearly normal way? Will it get better as the depression lessons? Or could it be something in addition to or causing the depression?

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)