ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Treatment And Prevention Of Rubella And Clinical Manifestations Of Herpes Simplex

Updated on March 25, 2014

The Best Way Of Preventing Rubella Is Through Vaccination

Source

Rubella Treatment And Prevention

Treatment: As the disease is generally benign, it is desirable to acquire rubella before the child-bearing ages. No specific treatment is indicated. Rubella occurring in women in the first 16 weeks of pregnancy leads to fetal malformation in up to 50% cases. Risk of fetal affection reduces as the pregnancy advances. Medical termination of pregnancy has to be considered if there is proof of rubella infection in early pregnancy.

Prevention: Vaccination using live attenuated vaccines has been in vogue. Live attenuated rubella virus RA 27/d grown in human diploid fibroblast cells is effective, when given in a dose of 0.5ml as a single injection. Vaccination confers solid immunity for 7 to 9 years. If facilities are available, vaccination should be considered for girls in the age groups of 11 to 13 years and women in the child-bearing age who are antibody-negative and are desirous of child-bearing. The vaccine virus passes into the letus and so pregnancy should be avoided for eight weeks following vaccination. Gammaglobulin administered to the mother after exposure aborts an overt attack, but safety of the fetus cannot be guaranteed.

The Physical Presentation Of Herpes Simplex Viral Infection

Source

Herpes Simplex (Herpes Febrillis, Fever Blister, Cold Sore)

Infection by Herpes simplex virus (HSV) also known as Herpes virus hominis (HVH), produces recurrent crops of vesicles over the mucocutaneous regions. Two types are infective to man. Type I HSV causes herpes labialis and keratitis. It is transmitted non venerally. Type II causes genital lesions and is transmitted by sexual contact. The virus remains in the skin and nerve ganglia in the dormant form to be activated periodically to give rise to recurrent eruptions. Fever, exposure to sunlight physical or emotional stress, malignancy and immunosuppressant drugs lead to exacerbation. Fevers, especially pneumonia, malaria and meningitis are commonly associated with herpes labialis. Herpes simplex is rare in enteric fevers. A crop of vesicles develop following a short period of tingling pain and paraesthesia over the affected region. The vesicles remain for 7 to 10 days after which they start to heal with the formation of crusts. Healing is complete in 21 days. When the crusts fall off, thin scars persist for some time. Common sites of eruption are around the mouth and external nares. Less commonly herpes simplex keratitis, recurrent gingivostomatitis and vulvo vaginitis may occur. Herpes simplex virus can cause mild fever. Serious complications may occur in susceptible persons and in immune-suppressed subjects. These include herpes simplex encephalitis and Kaposi’s varicelliform eruptions (eczema herpeticum). The latter develops in infants and adults with eczema. In such subjects, the eruptions become generalized and this leads to excessive loss of fluid, electrolytes and proteins. Herpes tends to become generalized in subjects who have sustained burns. Generalised herpes simplex occurring in wrestlers is called herpes gladiatorum. Herpes simplex virus pneumonia occurs in immunnocompromised hosts.

Diagnosis: Herpes simplex has to be differentiated from pustular or vesicular rashes and herpes zoster; the latter is nonrecurrent. Herpes simplex virus can be isolated from the vesicle fluid. Serological diagnosis is by demonstrating complements fixing antibodies.

Treatment: Local lesions which are benign may be left alone with simple cleaning and application of gentian violet. Topical iodoxuridine (0.1% hourly as drops or 0.5% ointment) is effective in herpetic keratitis. Antiviral drugs like adenine arabinoside and vidarbine are effective in more serious and extensive infections. Adenine arabinoside is given intravenously in a daily dose of 15 mg/Kg for 10 days.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)