ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Typhoid Fever: Clinical Significance Of Its Complications To Man’s Health

Updated on March 22, 2014

Abdominal Discomfort In Typhoid Fever


Complications Of Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever is associated with several complications. The major complications include severe toxemia, peripheral circulatory failure and intestinal hemorrhage and perforation. These are associated with high mortality if untreated.

Intestinal hemorrhage: Intestinal hemorrhage occurs during the second, or more commonly the third week of illness. Mild bleeding which manifests as blood streaking of the feces is seen in 20% cases, but serious bleeding from the ulcerated Peyer’s patches may occur in 2% cases. Unexplained tachycardia, fall in blood pressure and sudden drop in temperature should indicate the onset of intestinal hemorrhage. The signs of hypovolemic shock set in. The patient passes large amounts of clotted and fresh fluid blood along with small amounts of feces. If left untreated, death may occur within hours of the onset of bleeding.

Intestinal perforation: The terminal 50 cm of the ileum is the site of perforation. The onset of perforation may be heralded by the development of vague abdominal discomfort, acute abdominal pain, tenderness over the right iliac fossa, and rigidity. These is sudden fall of temperature. The pain and tenderness over the right iliac fossa worsen. Signs of peritonitis develop from the right iliac fossa and later become generalized. Signs of peritonitis are severe pain, abdominal rigidity and tenderness and absence of peristaltic sounds. Presence of air under the diaphragm and free fluid in the peritoneal cavity becomes evident as the condition progresses.

Secondary infection of the peritoneal cavity leads to increased toxemia. The mortality in untreated cases exceeds 80%. With prompt treatment, the mortality can be brought down to 10% or less.

In those that survive, the peritonitis may become localized and form an abscess, palpable as a mass in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen.

Rose Spots In Typhoid Fever


Relapse And Other Complications

Relapse: In 10 to 20% of cases, one or two weeks after recovery fever may return with all signs and symptoms similar to those observed during the initial illness. Blood cultures may become positive again. Cases partially treated with antibiotics have a greater tendency for relapse and this is seen in stopping antibiotic therapy. Relapses are generally milder than the initial illness, but sometimes, these may be more serious and associated with complications. Usually, only one relapse occurs but sometimes several relapses occur in succession. The presence of antibody levels as indicated by widal titers does not protect against relapse.

Chronic carrier state: Around 3% of subjects develop chronic asymptomatic carrier state with persistent infection in the gall bladder. This complication is seen more in older women. Such persons pass the organisms in stools for long periods and act as sources of infection to others, especially if they are working as cooks or food handlers. Chronic cholecystitis favours the development of carrier state. Sometimes, chronic urinary carrier state may develop, this is more frequent in areas endemic for bilharziasis.

Finally, typhoid fever usually confers lifelong immunity but second attacks may occur in rare cases. The immunity is relative and It can be overcome by a massive infecting dose of the organisms. Immunity is unrelated to the titre of antibodies againsO,H or Vi antigens.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)