ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Vitamin A (Retinol) Deficiency: Clinical Presentations, Diagnosis, Treatment, And Toxicity

Updated on February 22, 2014

Bitot's Spots In Night blindness

The earliest symptom is night blindness, followed by degenerative changes in the retina. The bulbar conjunctiva becomes dry, and rough grayish triangular foamy raised patches appear (Bitot’s spots).
The earliest symptom is night blindness, followed by degenerative changes in the retina. The bulbar conjunctiva becomes dry, and rough grayish triangular foamy raised patches appear (Bitot’s spots). | Source

xerophthalmia

More serious complications are keratomalacia involving the cornea with ulceration and necrosis. These changes follow if xerophthalmia is left untreated. Keratomalacia is more common in children aged 1 to 5 years. It leads to perforation, prolapsed of
More serious complications are keratomalacia involving the cornea with ulceration and necrosis. These changes follow if xerophthalmia is left untreated. Keratomalacia is more common in children aged 1 to 5 years. It leads to perforation, prolapsed of | Source

Clinical Presentations

The earliest symptom is night blindness, followed by degenerative changes in the retina. The bulbar conjunctiva becomes dry, and rough grayish triangular foamy raised patches appear (Bitot’s spots). A solution of 1% Rose Bengal instilled into the eye stains Bitot’s spots dark pink and make them stand out prominently. Both night blindness and xerosis of the conjunctiva readily disappear on administering vitamin A. When the cornea also becomes dry and lusterless, it is called xerophthalmia. More serious complications are keratomalacia involving the cornea with ulceration and necrosis. These changes follow if xerophthalmia is left untreated. Keratomalacia is more common in children aged 1 to 5 years. It leads to perforation, prolapsed of the iris and endophthalmitis leading to blindness. Skin changes include dryness and hyperkeratosis. A variety of intantile hydrocephalus has been attributed to vitamin A deficiency.

Vitamin A deficiency should be suspected in all malnourished children. Normal serum level of vitamin A is 20 ug/dl. Serum levels less than 10 ug/dl are indicative of deficiency.

Treatment: The diet should contain at least 100 g of green vegetables and adequate amounts of animal products. Occurrence of vitamin A deficiency in 5% or more of the population calls for mass treatment. In poor communities, 60 mg retinol administered orally once in 6 months or 300,000 IU once a year under supervision has been found to be extremely useful. Vitamin A deficiency occurring during pregnancy and lactation leads to poor vitamin A stores in the fetus and low vitamin A content of breast milk. These can be prevented by adequate supplementation during pregnancy.

Vomiting In Overdose Of Carotene

Symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, headache and desquamation of the skin. Recovery occurs spontaneously on removing the source of the vitamin from the diet.
Symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, headache and desquamation of the skin. Recovery occurs spontaneously on removing the source of the vitamin from the diet. | Source

Overdose Of Carotene

Excessive intake of carotene containing foods, principally carrots, leads to hypercarotenemia. It is a cosmetic problem due to yellowish pigmentation of skin. The serum is yellow, but sclera is white. The pigmentation disappears with the elimination of excessive carotene from the diet. Hypothyroid patients are very susceptible to hypercarotenemia. Hypercarotenemia does not lead on to hypervitaminosis A.

Vitamin A toxicity: This may be due to self- medication or large scaled ingestion of livers of fish or polar having enormous quantities of vitamin A.

Acute toxicity: Symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, headache and desquamation of the skin. Recovery occurs spontaneously on removing the source of the vitamin from the diet.

Chronic toxicity: this is seen in people who take 40,000 units or more of vitamin A daily for a prolonged period. It is characterized by body aches, arthralgia, hair loss, anorexia, benign intracranial hypertension, weight loss and hepatomegaly.

Clinical diagnosis can be confirmed by demonstrating raised vitamin A concentration in the serum and normal retinol binding protein. Withdrawal of the vitamin from the diet brings about prompt relief.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)