ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

cause of coronary artery disease

Updated on December 4, 2010

a diagramtical illustration

Click thumbnail to view full-size
how it goes
how it goes
how it goes

a brief introduction

What is coronary artery disease?
Sometimes people wonder why a perfectly functioning organ will start to malfunctions despite all the shields giving to it. But the fact remains that anything that has life, also have the ability to deteriorate with time and this also applicable to our dear heart and arteries.

Medical researches and findings have helped us to understand that coronary artery disease otherwise short formed CAD, is a health condition in which plaque gradually builds up inside the blood-carrying coronary arteries of the heart. And we all know that it is this artery that supplies our heart with oxygen-rich blood, which is essential to the muscles in the heart.

Therefore, this plaque blocks or reduces the free and easy passage of blood to the heart.
And plaque is a material that is made up of cholesterol, fat, calcium, and other substances found in the human blood. When these plaques builds up in the coronary arteries, it results to a health condition called atherosclerosis.

When these plaques have sufficiently built up in the coronary arteries, it will now result to a partial or total blocking of oxygen-rich blood flowing into the heart muscles. And in some cases, it may lead to the clotting of blood in the artery, which also slows down the passage of blood into the heart, thereby resulting to what we now refer to as Angina or simply what we all know as heart attack.

This effect that we now refer to as Angina, is a severe chest pain that occurs when insufficient oxygen-rich blood is flowing to an area of the heart muscle. Most times, Angina pains come in the form of pressure or squeezing in the chest. Though not often, a person suffering from Angina may also experience pain in the shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or even back.

The above effect, is the basic cause of most heart attacks we see today, which arises when a particular part of the heart muscle is not getting enough or sufficient oxygen-rich blood, which may also lead to a partial stroke or heart stiffening. 


Click thumbnail to view full-size

The symptoms

The common symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease:
CAD is a very dangerous ailment, it tortures the patient, and even those around him or her through the pains it inflicts on the patient. Like in every other aspect of life, a stitch in time saves nine. So the earlier you are able to identify this condition of health, the better it is for you to seek corrective and preventive measures.

The most common symptom of CAD is Angina or what may be called chest pain, discomfort, aching, etc. these symptoms include: irregular heart beats, discomfort in other areas of the upper body including the arms, back, neck, jaw, left shoulder, or stomach. Difficulty in breathing, continuous sweating, indigestion, some times a feeling of heartburn, nausea, dizziness, extreme weakness etc.

Despite all that I have just said, I must also let you know that CAD symptoms vary with gender, which makes the symptom of CAD in men to be quite different with those in men. In women. The most common symptoms of CAD (heart disease) in women are:
Pain over the chest that travels to the arm or jaw
A burning sensation in the chest or upper abdomen
Shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, dizziness, sweating, fatigue and nausea.

The Atherosclerosis

Click thumbnail to view full-size
a closer look at the inner part of the coronary artery
a closer look at the inner part of the coronary artery
a closer look at the inner part of the coronary artery

The Cause of Coronary Artery Disease

What are the things that cause Coronary Artery Disease?
Still building my facts around proven medical and scientific researches, coronary artery disease develops when some factors destroy the inner layers of the coronary arteries, as briefed in the first, second and third paragraphs. Among these distinctive factors include:
Smoking, High amounts of certain fats and cholesterol in the blood, High blood pressure, High sugar content in the blood due to some factors like insulin resistance or diabetes.
Normally, when such damage occurs, the body starts a natural healing process (because it is equipped to function this way). The body releases compounds that promote this process from its stored excess fatty tissues. And instead of doing good, this natural healing causes more plaque to build up where the arteries are damaged.

And this building up of plaques in the arteries may take years, and most times it begins at childhood and then overgrows with time, thereby succeeding in narrowing totally, the blood-passage openings of the coronary arteries.

Coronary heart disease treatment

Closer examination of the disease

Several discoveries have shown that the reason for this even distribution of pain is that the heart originates during embryonic life in the neck, in the same way as the arms. Therefore. Angina discomfort above the mandible, below the epigastrium, or confined to the ear is a rare case though. Angina discomfort has an equivalent, which include faintness, dyspnea, eructations or even fatigue, are all common symptoms, particularly in the elderly people of around 60 and above.
In a typical episode of angina pectoris, it usually begins gradually and reaches its maximum intensity over a period of some minutes before expending, and this is one of the major reasons why patients usually prefer to rest, sit or stop walking during episodes of this symptom.
Patient might experience or observe some chest discomfort while walking in the cold, uphill, or after a meal, this is a clear is indication of angina. Pain radiating into the lower extremities is also a highly unusual manifestation of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris is usually experienced by patients who develop progressive constriction of the coronary arteries and cardiac pain. This symptom usually begins to appear whenever the load on the heart becomes too heavy or much, in relation to coronary blood flow.

Variant angina is another angina syndrome that can be best described as an unusual syndrome of cardiac pain, secondary to myocardial ischemia that occurs almost exclusively at rest. Physical exertion or emotional stress does not usually cause it.
Rather, it is the result of transient increases in coronary vasospasm. Vasospasm causes a transient and abrupt, known decrease in the diameter of an epicardial (or large septa) coronary artery that results in myocardial ischemia. This event occurs in the absence of any preceding increases in myocardial oxygen demand, as reflected in an increase heart rate or blood pressure.
A measurements of cardiac vein flow and left anterior descending coronary artery diameter in patients with vasospastic angina showed that not only epicardial coronary artery, but also the coronary resistance arteries are affected by the coronary vasomotion disorder.
In patients with variant angina, basal coronary artery tone may be increased. The precise mechanism haven’t been established, but a systematic alteration in an imbalance between endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors have been suggested. Patients with variant angina don’t exhibit classic coronary risk factors except that they are often heavy cigarette or hemp smokers.
Further studies have proved that cigarette smoking is an important factor because it has been reported hypomagnesemia predisposes to variant angina. Attacks of variant angina tend to be in increase between midnight and very early in the morning, which sometimes occur in cluster of two to three within some minutes. Hence, this form of unstable angina occurs almost independently at rest. The symptom is uniquely identified by segment elevations on the electrocardiogram, which is always superimposed on fixed lesions.
This disease is a pain inflicting condition, that most times cause the patient to feel like giving up, if it is not earlier discovered in order to seek for early measures and treatment.

We also have the microvascular angina, which is a condition postulated of the syndrome of angina pectoris with normal arteries. Among this condition are patients with microvascular spasm, who may have developed this as a result of ischemia.
While in some patients, chest discomfort without ischemia may be due to abnormal pain perception or feelings. Subsequent hypersensitivity may result in an awareness of chest pain in response to stimuli such as arterial stretch or may be changes in heart rhythm or contractility. It is quite notable for us to know that angina-like chest pain with normal epicardial arteries occurs more frequently in women, many of whom are at their pre-menopausal period of life, while on the contrary, Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease (OCAD) is found more commonly in men, and the symptoms varies from a typical chest pain or any other of its likes.
More so, another type of angina syndrome called the acute myocardial infarction results from reduced blood flow through one of the coronary arteries, which cause myocardial ischemia and necrosis. And it is very clear that the infarction site depends on the vessels involved during this act. As experts proved that, occlusion of the circumflex coronary artery causes a lateral wall infarction; occlusion of the left anterior artery causes an anterior wall infarction. And since this result from occlusion of one of the coronary arteries, it can stem from atherosclerosis, platelet aggregation, thrombosis, or coronary spasm.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • accofranco profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from L Island

      @C.C Riter, thanks a million...i am sorry for the late reply.

      @Hair Lab, you are correct...and we must abide by it if we desire to stay free of CAD...thank you.

      @Pine creek dental, i do...but...thanks for commenting.

      @utahspineanddisc, i am sorry for the late replies, its because of my new job...are you still experiencing it?

    • accofranco profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from L Island

      @conradofontanilla, thanks for the contribution, i hope it helps the readers...thank you for commenting.

    • conradofontanilla profile image


      7 years ago from Philippines

      The analysis as to the cause of heart disease is inadequate. Smoke per se is not a culprit. It is the free radicals that it contains that do the damage. Free radicals grab electrons from the inside wall of an artery resulting in atheroma, a benign tumor. Atheroma gathers collagen, elastin, bad cholesterol and other debris. Later on calcium comes in and acts as a cementing agent(Cranton, E., MD. and A. Brecher. Bypassing Bypass. 1984. All these make for a mound that graduates into a plaque. For more pieces of information I have Hubs "Heart Disease: Conventional View Versus Free Radical Theories of Disease," and "Free Radicals with Unpaired Electrons in Alternative Medicine."

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      I have had chronic back pain for years. Does anyone have any good ideas about how to treat it. I would love to be able to play racquetball again. Thanks!

    • profile image

      Pinecreek Dental, dentist in Salmon ID 

      8 years ago

      do you really not believe in cholesterol? Looks like a lot of great research though.

    • profile image

      Hair Lab 

      8 years ago

      The World Health Organization recommends "low to moderate alcohol intake" to reduce risk of coronary artery disease although this remains without scientific cause and effect proof. Also, found 'insufficient evidence' to recommend that doctors counsel patients on exercise.

    • profile image

      C. C. Riter 

      9 years ago

      Good informative hub acco. I have A-Fib and a pacemaker/defibrilator. Still ticking tho'. haha

      Here's something might interest you, and hope it don't give you a coronary. good for a young man such as yourself to read this stuff.

    • accofranco profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from L Island

      thank you my dear dranjesh, the inspiration to write this hub came from my mother.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)