Xerostomia Causes - Tips on Dealing with Dry Mouth Syndrome
Xerostomia or dry mouth syndrome is characterized by reduced salivary flow due to different causes. From what I have understood, xerostomia is not a disease in itself but can be a symptom of any particular disease and can lead to difficulty swallowing, difficulty speaking, dental issues, tooth decay, and taste disorders. Since ancient times, our mouth has proven to be a mirror of our health and it is said that if it is healthy, it is more likely that our entire body is healthy, so understanding xerostomia becomes really important as it involves the oral cavity which is also the main gateway of food from which we generate energy. Now before giving you some useful tips on dealing with this annoying dry mouth syndrome, you must understand what is the function of saliva and salivary glands in our body and how important it is to keep them functioning properly. For your information, there are three major types of salivary glands namely parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands, which produce and secrete saliva. When food enters the oral cavity, the saliva is the first thing that begins the digestion of food because it contains enzymes that help in chewing and breaking down of food. Also, saliva contains a sterile liquid that not only helps in maintaining good oral hygiene but also helps defend the harmful foreign microorganisms that enter our body, so if our mouth has little saliva, then we are more likely to have infections inside the mouth, have trouble chewing and swallowing food, as well as have trouble in proper digestion. This abnormally reduced salivation is medically called as hyposalivation and is also the main reason for bad breath.
Some Causes of Xerostomia:
- Drug related xerostomia.
- Salivary gland dysfunctions.
- Radiation therapy.
- Autoimmune disorders.
Drug Related Xerostomia
Taking of certain drugs is the main etiology of xerostomia, but it is also proven that drugs rarely cause irreversible damage to salivary glands because when you will skip or stop taking them, your signs and symptoms of xerostomia will disappear to some extent. According to some recent research, it has been found that there are more than 440 drugs, which can cause xerostomia, and some types of those drugs are analgesics, antihistamines, antihypertensives, antiemetics, anticonvulsants, antiparkinsonian drugs, appetite suppressants, antispasmodics, diuretics, expectorants, decongestants, and muscle relaxants. It has also been found that these drugs are able to decrease, increase, or alter the function of salivary glands and composition of salivary fluid, possibly because they mimic the action of autonomic nervous system or by direct action on the cellular processes required for salivation. These drugs can also indirectly affect the salivary flow by altering the balance of electrolytes and fluids or disrupt blood flow to the salivary glands.
The effect of dry mouth caused by a drug can enhance when it is combined with another, for example prescription of psychotropic drugs such as neuroleptics with antidepressants prescribed in the treatment of people with psychological disorders.
Salivary Gland Dysfunctions Leading to Dry Mouth
Salivary gland dysfunction is another major cause of xerostomia or dry mouth disorders and complaint of dry mouth is usually related with salivary gland dysfunction. There are many diseases that can lead to salivary gland dysfunction and then causes xerostomia.
Radiation Therapy Dry Mouth
Radiation therapy is a treatment for cancer and is given to cancer patients to reduce the abnormally multiplying cancer cells in a given location inside the body. When this therapy is given to the neck and head region, as in cases of oral, throat, or dental cancers, patients experience intense dry mouth or xerostomia because this treatment damages the salivary glands resulting in lack of saliva leading to severe dry mouth conditions and increased risk of infections.
Chemotherapy Dry Mouth
Chemo means chemicals and therapy means treatment so chemotherapy means treatment with use of chemicals to kill cancerous cells. High doses of chemotherapy in cancer patients leads to salivary gland failure and thereby causes xerostomia.
In autoimmune disorders like Sjogren's syndrome our immune system has a tendency to attack salivary glands causing damage again leading to dry mouth syndrome.
So above were the causes of xerostomia and below are:
Some Tips On Dealing With Dry Mouth Syndrome
Tip #1: Take proper care of oral hygiene through daily cleaning to reduce the risk of infection and entry of harmful microorganisms that is facilitated by low saliva.
Tip #2: Chew food thoroughly so as to stimulate saliva production and facilitate digestion of food.
Tip #3: Avoid alcohol and snuff because they cause dry mouth.
Tip #4: Drink plenty of water on a daily basis to reduce dry mouth problems.
Tip #5: Chew sugarless chewing gum to stimulate secretion of saliva.
Tip #6: Do not go long without drinking or eating anything because that is the time when saliva is reduced and mouth feels dry which causes discomfort.
Tip #7: Some teas such as chamomile tea, mint tea, and Echinacea tea can help in dry mouth conditions, as they naturally stimulate saliva production. If you are suffering from this problem, you should have these herbs in your home.
Tip #8: One of the most recommended home remedies for dry mouth is apple, as it is a good generator of saliva and also provides general oral healthcare. Eating an apple a day helps in keeping dry mouth away.
Least but not last, xerostomia or dry mouth is a poorly understood disease that can cause great inconvenience for people; therefore, understanding its causes and following few simple tips can help reduce their potential and protect the mouth which is a true mirror of the health of the rest of our body.