ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

D.B. Cooper: A Jump into Folklore

Updated on April 18, 2014

By: Wayne Brown

On November 24, 1971, A Northwest Orient Airlines Boeing 727-51 model aircraft (FAA registration N467US) sat at a jet-way loading ramp at Portland International Airport. The aircraft would service the 30-minute passenger flight from Portland to Seattle known as “Flight 305” on this day. This was the day before Thanksgiving but the Seattle route was not a popular one on this date with only one-third of the available seats booked as the departure hour neared for the flight. Captain William Scott would be in command of the aircraft for the short journey and light load. Captain Scott and his crew went about their pre-flight duties preparing for what appeared to be another routine short hop to Seattle. Little did they know that they were about to have front row seats on a flight that would make history in aviation.

At the Northwest ticket counter inside the Portland International Airport, Northwest ticket agent, Hal Williams, greeted a brown-eyed man in his mid-forties as he approached the agent at the counter. He was dressed nicely wearing a black raincoat over his dark suit which was trimmed out with a starched white shirt, a black neck-tie, and a pair of black loafer shoes. The tie was held in place with a “mother of pearl” tie clip. The man stood slightly less than 6 feet tall. He man carried no luggage, only a black valise and a small brown paper-bag with him. As he approached the counter, he identified himself as “Dan Cooper” and indicated to the agent that he wanted to purchase a one-way ticket on Flight 305 to Seattle for the upcoming departure. Agent Williams completed the purchase transaction entering the name “Dan Cooper” on manifest and the boarding pass assigning seat 18C for the boarding. The ticket cost was $20.00 including taxes. Cooper paid with cash.

Artist Rendering of Hijacker D.B. Cooper
Artist Rendering of Hijacker D.B. Cooper | Source

In 1971, one could buy a ticket from the airline for one-way with cash in any name they desired…identification was not an issue nor was security as the airlines had experienced no significant troubles over the many decades of their operation thus Cooper’s desire for a one-way ticket on short notice did not raise any reasons to suspect that he might have sinister intentions which could endanger the aircraft and its passengers. There were plenty of seats available and Northwest was more than happy to fulfill Mr. Cooper’s desires.

The weather in Portland for this Thanksgiving Eve day was typical of the Portland area with a low cloud deck and a rainy drizzle falling intermittently. Weather records show an area of low pressure was situated in the Gulf of Alaska that had begun to move on-shore into the Pacific Northwest. They system contained heavy rains for the coastal regions of the upper Pacific coastal states of Washington and Oregon. The air was damp and the day had a chill on it as is typical for many days in the northwest. Cooper had planned well for the conditions with his black raincoat protecting his suit and tie from the falling raindrops.

Dan Cooper made his way to the assigned gate for Flight 305 to Seattle and waited for the call to board the flight. Once on board, Cooper moved to his assigned seat (18C), an aisle near the mid passenger cabin. In retrospect, Cooper was not a remarkable figure and went unnoticed in the waiting area and on the boarded aircraft. His appearance was one of a clean-cut, well-dressed, respectable businessman of which there were thousands traveling the skies of America at the time. Cooper just melted into that unnoticeable herd that trotted the skies by the week.

The crew of Flight 305 included Captain William Scott, 51 years of age, and a 20 year veteran of Northwest operations. His copilot was First Officer William “Bill” Ratazak and the flight engineer and 2nd Officer, sitting directly behind the copilot at the systems panel was Harold E. Anderson. The passenger cabin was staffed by three flight attendants led by Senior Flight Attendant, Alice Hancock and included Tina Mucklow, age 22, and Florence Shaffer, age 23. Both had less than two years of flight experience at the time.

A Northwest Orient Boeing 727-51 Jet Aircraft
A Northwest Orient Boeing 727-51 Jet Aircraft | Source
A Northwest Orient Boeing 727-51 – Note Rear Stairs Extended
A Northwest Orient Boeing 727-51 – Note Rear Stairs Extended | Source

The Boeing 727-51 assigned to Flight 305 on this day was registered with the Federal Aviation Administration as “N467US” with manufacturer number “18803” making it the 137th aircraft in the build series. The aircraft had first flown on the 9th of April 1965 having to date logged six years and 8 months of service in the Northwest fleet. This configuration offered 134 passenger seats. The aircraft was powered by three turbojet engine configured with one on each wing and one embedded into the base of the tail section of the airframe. At the time, various models and configurations of the 727 formed the backbone of domestic aviation. The 727 represented a leg up technologically on its predecessor, Boeing’s initial passenger jet entry, the 707, and offering not only tri-engine power but also a variable wing configuration which included flaps at the rear of each wing and extendable slats on the front of the wing allowing the aircraft to operate into airports not serviceable by its predecessor, the 707. The aircraft would serve as the workhorse of aviation industry well into the 1990’s prior to its retirement as airlines opted for more fuel efficient models coming on the market.

Northwest Orient Flight 305 was a “milk-run” of sorts which originated in Washington D.C. each day. The flight made stops at the Northwest Headquarters hub in Minneapolis, MN then went on to Great Falls and Missoula, Montana before finally arriving into Portland. Seattle would be the final destination on the journey. NW 305 could carry a total of 94 passengers in full load with 28 in first-class and 66 in coach seats. On this Thanksgiving Eve day, the flight was running about 30 minutes late on the scheduled 2:35 PM departure time.

At 2:55 PM local time in Portland, Flight 305 was still taxiing and drawing near to the point where it would access the active runway for takeoff. Passenger Cooper caught the attention of flight attendant, Florence Shaffner, and handed her a note which she promptly put into a pocket of her uniform thinking it was yet another come on from a traveling salesman. She then headed off to assist other passengers. Cooper waited for her to come back that the aisle and got her attention again. He motioned for her to move down close and he whispered to her, “You’d better read that. I have a bomb”, then pointed to the briefcase occupying his lap. The time was 2:58 PM and Flight 305 was taking the active runway for the takeoff. Shaffner immediately moved to the galley where she read the note which was written out very neatly stating, “I have a bomb in my briefcase. I will use it if necessary. I want you to sit next to me. You are being hijacked. She then shared the note with flight attendant, Tina Mucklow.

Flight 305 rolled down the runway at Portland International and lifted off at 3:07 PM. As the aircraft climbed through the lower cloud deck and headed for its cruise altitude for Seattle, flight attendants Shaffner and Mucklow made their way quickly to the flight deck to share the information contained in the note with Captain Scott. In a matter of minutes Cooper’s note had transformed the on-board atmosphere of Flight 305 from routine to tense. For the moment, the other 35 passengers aboard were unaware that anything out of the normal was taking place. As the aircraft continued its climb en route to Seattle, Captain Scott contacted air traffic control and was advised to cooperate as much as possible with the hijacker.

At 3:13 PM, Captain Scott had received additional information on Cooper’s demands. Flight 305 radioed the Northwest Operations Center at Sea-Tac International Airport with a message. In abbreviated form via teletype, Captain Scott advised that the aircraft had been hijacked en route to Seattle. He indicated that the hijacker was demanding $200, 00 in a knapsack and four parachutes (2 back mount chutes and 2 chest pack emergency chutes).

Northwest Orient Capt. William Scott
Northwest Orient Capt. William Scott | Source

Cooper directed that Flight 305 could not land upon arrival at Sea-Tac International until he was assured that the money and the parachutes were at the airport and ready to be delivered. Nearing Seattle, Flight 305 entered into a holding pattern over the Puget Sound. Captain Scott received assurance that the requested items were waiting at the airport to be delivered to the aircraft. Hearing this confirmation, Cooper gave the crew permission to proceed with the landing. Flight 305 touched down at 5:45 PM local Seattle time and taxied to a parking spot. Once the money and parachutes were delivered aboard the Boeing-727, Cooper released the 35 passengers and two flight attendants to depart the aircraft. The crew remained on board for the next leg and awaited Cooper’s instruction.

Cooper indicated to Captain Scott that he wanted to take-off once the aircraft was refueled and head for Mexico. Once airborne, Cooper told Scott that he wanted him to depart the airport traffic pattern and set a course southward for Reno, Nevada. Captain Scott set a course for Portland and would then proceed from that point toward Reno. Scott was instructed to keep the airspeed below 170 knots and to maintain an altitude below 10,000 feet. Scott was to keep the wing flaps extended to 15 degrees and the landing gear was to remain down. Once airborne, the rear-entry stairwell access was to be opened. The Boeing-727 lifted off the airport runway at 7:38 PM Seattle local time and turned southeast toward Reno carefully following Cooper’s instruction as to speed, altitude, and configuration. Cooper had taken a flight attendant to the back of the aircraft with him to show him how to operate the stairwell access and to act as a hostage to keep those on the flight deck in line with his demands. Immediately after being show the stairwell controls, Cooper sent his hostage back to the cockpit area leaving him alone in the back of the 727.

On the flight deck, noticeable shifts in the atmospheric pressure inside the aircraft were apparent as crew-members experienced “ear-popping. On the flight deck, a panel light flashed confirming the rear stairwell was actuated and open. Obviously, the hijacker had opened the stairwell access in the tail section of the aircraft in preparation to make use of the parachutes which he had demanded. Captain Scott had the crew remain in the flight deck area even though there was evidence that Cooper may have already departed the passenger cabin.

Captain Scott remained the flight plan as it had been directed by Cooper. The 727 continued on course toward Reno configured for low airspeed flight and with the land gear extended. Three and one-half hours later, it touched down safely on the runway at Reno Airport dragging the extended rear stairwell against the concrete on touchdown. Investigators would later determine that Cooper had jumped from the rear section of the aircraft at approximately 8:13 PM over the southwestern regions of Washington State. Dan “D.B.” Cooper had been seen for the last time disappearing into the cold, dark and rainy night sky beneath a parachute descending into the heavy forested timberlands of southwestern Washington.

Cooper was described by witnesses as being approximately 6 feet tall and weighing as much as 175 lbs. The culprit never referred to himself as “D.B. Cooper” which is a moniker that was assigned by a reporter who misunderstood that he had stated that his name was “Dan Cooper”. The mistake stuck and history stayed with the reference to “D.B. Cooper” as the name of the hijacker. Along with the name, the individual posing as Cooper took a permanent spot in history as a man who had successfully pulled off a hijacking, received his ransom, and successfully escaped, at least as far as history records to present day. Cooper had parachuted into some rather challenging terrain in the foothills of southern Washington. Deeply forested, the foothills approaching Mount Rainier and Mount St. Helens offered many challenges for an untrained individual. Given the fact that Cooper had no issue jumping out of an airplane, it is easy to assume that he had some skills in terms survival and possibly escape and evasion. At the same time, parachuting into a dense forest in the darkness of night offers many opportunities ranging from death to being stranded high up in a tree top and tangled in parachute lines. The weather Cooper jumped into that evening also would have further complicated his ability to select a landing site and navigate to it visually. Cooper certainly could have died in his attempt to escape but 40 plus years of searching has not confirmed or denied the result.

FBI Bulletin Describing Suspect Cooper
FBI Bulletin Describing Suspect Cooper | Source

Cooper’s escapade generated over 17 books covering the subject and one movie starring Robert Duvall in the role as D.B. Cooper. There have more than 1,000 suspects including one woman considered in the crime and some of those suspects have actually made deathbed confessions implicating themselves to be Cooper. Still, nothing of a concrete nature has surfaced to confirm any suspicions or to indicate the fate of Cooper or his ransom. After over 40 years, the hijacking remains the only completely successful one in U.S. aviation history and the only unsolved one as well. D.B. Cooper has become an object of folklore in American history.

Among the suspects considered are two men were two men with parachuting skills. William Gossett was a former military type with parachute training and experience. Gossett died while on the run in Utah. He was said to have a safety deposit box which indeed contained $200,000. The story also goes that near the end of his life Gossett confessed to a retired judge and to his sons that he was the famous, D.B. Cooper. Apparently the FBI has not been able to make that confirmation with the evidence at hand.

Kenny Christenson was also considered as a suspect. Christenson was a former paratrooper. Christenson is never known to have claimed or confessed to be Cooper but his brother became convinced that he was after Christenson died in 1994. Here again, the evidence on hand with the FBI did not match up to confirm Christenson’s role in the hijacking. The FBI apparently has some DNA and fingerprints which are used to make comparisons of potential suspects. Apparently, neither Gossett nor Christenson provided a match. In some circles, Christenson is still seen as one of the better candidates in that he was a Northwest Orient employee familiar with the Boeing 727 aircraft. He drank bourbon whiskey (Cooper’s drink of choice), smoked Cooper’s cigarette brand…Raleigh. Beyond those factors, one also quickly notices the similarity between the Cooper sketches and the photo of Christenson who was said to be a disgruntled employee at the time of the hijacking.

Kenny Christenson
Kenny Christenson | Source

There is also the question of the $200,000 ($20 bill denominations) which the FBI also seems to be recorded by serial number with the FBI. Agents for the FBI have stated that the “money has surfaced in some amounts or they expect that more of it will surface in the future”. FBI officials assigned to the case state that the case is still open and active although the activity surrounding leads is minimal after over forty years. As late as 2011, the agent in charge of the case released information confirming that a credible suspect was under scrutiny and that the suspect has “strong” ties to the hijacking such that articles belonging to that person were being evaluated for DNA evidence or a fingerprints match.

In August of 2011, the newspaper, USA Today, featured a story in which an Oklahoma woman named “Marla Cooper” told two television networks that she was convinced that her uncle, who was dead, had committed the hijacking attributed to D.B. Cooper in November 1971. The man’s name was Lynn Doyle Cooper. Cooper had died in 1999. Ms. Cooper stated that she had provided articles (a guitar strap and a Christmas photo) belonging to her uncle for FBI Lab examination. She also told the networks that she never saw her uncle again after 1972 and where he lived could never be revealed. Ms. Cooper went on to say that she heard her uncle state, “We did it. Our money problems are over, we hijacked an airplane.” The uncle’s involvement was also confirmed to Cooper by her father on his deathbed in 1995.

Marla Cooper with “Uncle L.D. Cooper”
Marla Cooper with “Uncle L.D. Cooper” | Source

According to Marla Cooper’s story, two of her uncles departed her grandmother’s house in Sisters, Oregon claiming that they were going on a turkey-hunting trip. This event took place on the day of the hijacking, November 24, 1971. When the men returned, Uncle Doyle Cooper was bloodied and all bruised up and claiming that he had been involved in an auto accident. While this sounds like a credible story, those who have researched the evidence on file with the FBI say that there are a lot of such suspicious “Uncle Doyle” types in the stack and this is just one more of them. Adding to the problem is the question of whether or not Uncle L.D. actually resembles the man described as D.B. Cooper. Uncle L.D. did have some military experience dating back to the Korean War but nothing of record as far as experience as a paratrooper. Uncle L.D. was said to have some insider knowledge of the Boeing 727 and would have known how low and slow it could fly as well as the fact that one could depart it from the rear passenger stairs.

Ms. Cooper also claims that her uncle lost the money on the parachute jump and had wanted to return to the site and search for it. Her father stopped that effort possibly because the FBI was all over the case by this time and the area would be under tight surveillance. If story has merit and Uncle L.D. does prove to be “D.B. Cooper”, then one must wonder “what happened to the money if he never returned with it?” Of course the fact that Uncle L.D. never returned with the money is in conflict with the quote attributed to him that “we’ll never have to worry about money again” the niece claimed to have heard upon his return. The only way that statement holds water is if L.D. planned to return and find the lost bills.

In 1980, eight year-old Brian Ingram was with his father on a river outing in southern Washington State. While digging in the sandy banks of the Columbia River, Brian uncovered $5800 dollars in $20 denominations. The Columbia River forms the border which separates the States of Washington and Oregon. The bills were rotten and deteriorating but many still had readable serial numbers. The money was separated into three bundles and was very close to the sandy surface leaving investigators to believe that it had been washed there in the runoff waters as opposed to being buried. No other money was found in follow-digs on the site by the FBI. The bills proved to match the ransom money passed to Cooper in Seattle on the night of the hijacking. Insurance companies that covered the ransom recovered most of the deteriorated $20 bills but young Ingram was allowed to keep a portion of them. After Ingram became an adult, he auctioned some of the bills to the public as souvenirs. The bills were expected to net between $750 and $1500 each on eBay with the proceeds going to Ingram. The irony of this find was that Brian Ingram’s father was a fugitive from justice in Oklahoma having left that state with “mortgaged goods” for which he failed to meet the payments. The father was jailed as a result of the outstanding warrants. To date, the bills found by Ingram are the only portion of the ransom to surfaces none have shown up in circulation.

Route Of Flight For NW 305 Departing Seattle
Route Of Flight For NW 305 Departing Seattle | Source
A Samping Of The $5800 Found Along The Columbia River
A Samping Of The $5800 Found Along The Columbia River | Source

In 2007, the FBI revealed their two major evidence sources in the case. Fingerprints had been lifted from the airliner seats and things which Cooper touched while aboard the aircraft including the cigarette butts he crushed out in the ashtray installed in the seat arm. A single strand of hair was also retrieved and thought to be Cooper’s. Cooper also abandoned his back clip-on neck-tie and tie clasp prior to his jump from the aircraft. From this item, the FBI was able to retrieve enough DNA to sufficient provide a comparison basis for any person suspected of the crime. Still, technology must make significant strides beyond today’s levels to make use of all the evidence, such as the strand of hair. To date, no one suspected or confessing to the hijacking has met the evidence and matched it and D.B. Dan Cooper remains a mystery if he is indeed even still alive.

One thing stands out in this 40+ year old mystery and that is the awareness that D.B. Cooper has inserted himself into the folklore of America, especially in the region of the Northwest where the hijacking occurred. Though Cooper is technically a criminal and a fugitive from the law, his act has taken on heroic overtones. D.B. Cooper is looked upon as the man who “beat the system” from beginning to end. He defied the odds, came up with a plan and successfully carried it out. Even if the identity of Cooper is eventually defined, his place in American folklore has already been decided. One Northwest local summed it up when she said, “D.B. Cooper is the Bigfoot of the Northwest.” Somewhere out there, an 80-something year-old man may have read those words then smiled and winked to no one in particular.

©Copyright WBrown2012. All Right Reserved.

26 August 2012


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • drbj profile image

      drbj and sherry 

      8 years ago from south Florida

      Hate to admit I'm that old, Wayne, but I remember reading about DB Cooper in the newspapers back in the day. The stories I read seemed to compare him to an unassuming modern day Jesse James. Don't know if we'll ever learn the truth but you did lay out the evidence in a jim-dandy way. Great reporting!

    • breakfastpop profile image


      8 years ago

      I am aware of this story and it is a fascinating one to be sure. You did such an amazing job aying this out. I felt as though you were narrating this story for me. Up interesting and awesome.

    • The Frog Prince profile image

      The Frog Prince 

      8 years ago from Arlington, TX

      Nice read. I think DB didn't survive his free fall. None of us may ever know.

      The Frog

    • 50 Caliber profile image

      50 Caliber 

      8 years ago from Arizona

      Wayne, great job! I recognized the title and sketch as the D.B. Cooper from back in the day that I was busy and never really aware that it took place at the time, heck I just turned of legal drinking age and voting age as well in the archaic age of kill the kids but give them no rights so being stateside at the time training for another trip to the theater of fun, me and my merry band of compadres were probably doing what we did best, gettin' drunk LOL and watching cartoons if we watched anything at all, as well I doubt any of us read a newspaper or cared what was in one unless it was that the war was over and we figured somebody would tell us on base if that happened.

      So all that said, I don't recall how I came to know much of the information and the ability to say, "hey, that's a sketch of DB Cooper!" the second I saw it. I'm sure it wasn't college level American History so it had to be a television special or some such.

      I still was amazed once more at your ability to present the topic in a way that was easy reading and actually reminded me of disembarking a flight back in the day where you got off on rolling stair cases and walked to the terminal, one time I got off a flight in Dallas Fort Worth out the rear staircase and that was part of the story I didn't know was the type of aircraft I was n and he had used some time earlier. So an easy read and one that taught me a bit and held my attention on what was remarked at above as written about many times before, I figure the commenter would do good to recognize it was not marked and pulled as "redundant, or some other description of used content" that in it's self says much for your style of presentation that drew me to vote everything but beautiful.

      Thanks for a good educational read.

      I have but one question, does the statute of limitations apply to this crime? If so I would think the FBI would have dropped it and moved on to investigating more serious crimes like "spoofing as a president by an idiot" LOL (had to do it, sorry)

      The amount of money you have above is it 200,000 or 20,000? My money value calculator says a dollar in 1971 is worth $5.65 of 2012 dollars so back then $113,000.00 or $1,130,000.00 would be nothing to complain about getting a way with but some how the money dug up with matching serial numbers seems to make me think he lost his cash in the jump and possibly his life as well. I doubt this side of life some things have to be saved for when we are sitting around a cloud fire telling stories a few have to be saved to keep eternity from redundancy No?

      Peace and Blessings,

      to you and yours,


    • Wayne Brown profile imageAUTHOR

      Wayne Brown 

      8 years ago from Texas

      @Faith Reaper...The FBI seems to be of the mind that advances in technology along the lines of DNA will probably be the key. Thanks for the good words! ~WB

      @Mhatter99...There is a lot out there considering 17 books, a movie and more articles than one can count. There are also a number of websites and forums for those who engage in the search for clues and run down leads. Glad you enjoyed this one. ~WB

      @writer20...Thank you Joyce! It is very difficult to find a subject that has not been covered in some way. ~WB

      @Gypsy Rose Lee...Yes, back in that day, hijacking became the biggest fear of the airline passenger in the USA. Most of those that occurred were done in the name of getting out of the country and attempting to get prisoners set free, etc. Once security precautions began, most of it died out. The 911 hijackers apparently saw that it was easier to get things through security if you flew in from feeder airports. That too I believe has changed judging by the way I am checked at some of these feeders today. Glad that I could share this with you. ~WB

    • Gypsy Rose Lee profile image

      Gypsy Rose Lee 

      8 years ago from Daytona Beach, Florida

      Thanks for sharing this fascinating story. Wasn't aware of any of this. Passing this on.

    • writer20 profile image

      Joyce Haragsim 

      8 years ago from Southern Nevada

      Good story. I was going to say you could put it on Smashwords but it's already been written about, shame.

      Voted up and interesting, Joyce.

    • Mhatter99 profile image

      Martin Kloess 

      8 years ago from San Francisco

      Great article! Whether it was the fact themselves or the way you laid them out... good job. Thank you.

    • Faith Reaper profile image

      Faith Reaper 

      8 years ago from southern USA

      Very interesting write. Now, since you've written this hub, maybe someone will attempt to find the rest of the money. Ha. That is amazing that he got away with it and it may forever be a mystery. Excellent hub. Well-researched and written. In His Love, Faith Reaper

    • Wayne Brown profile imageAUTHOR

      Wayne Brown 

      8 years ago from Texas

      @rcrumple...Thank always has been a popular that more people remember in the aftermath than so much as when it was happening. Glad you enjoyed it! ~WB

    • rcrumple profile image


      8 years ago from Kentucky

      Another great tale of intrigue! This is a story of which, I'm afraid, will never have a definitive ending. So much the better! We need to see the system can sometimes be beaten. Great Job! Tremendous detail made exceptionally interesting! My Compliments!


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)