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How to Write a Subplot

Updated on September 12, 2014

First, a Definition

I’m going to borrow from Wikipedia for a definition of a subplot:

“In fiction, a subplot is a secondary strand of the plot that is a supporting side story for any story or the main plot. Subplots may connect to main plots, in either time and place or in thematic significance. Subplots often involve supporting characters, those besides the protagonist or antagonist.

Subplots are distinguished from the main plot by taking up less of the action, having fewer significant events occur, with less impact on the 'world' of the work, and occurring to less important characters.”

Think of subplots this way: in real life, none of us lives in isolation. Our lives intersect with others. Our lives overlap with others. Some of the connecting tissues of our lives have very little effect on the overall picture of our development. Some have a great effect.

In a novel, the subplots connect to the main plot, and add structure to it.

Begin with your characters
Begin with your characters | Source

How to Write a Successful Subplot

We begin with the characters. Not all characters in a novel will provide a subplot, but some demand it.

In my recently released novel, Resurrecting Tobias, the main story is obviously about Tobias King, but throughout the book there are subplots about his best friend, Pete, and his lover, Maria, and those subplots add depth to the central story….or at least I hope they do.

So develop your characters first. Decide which of those characters demand that time be spent on them, and how can their subplot add to the main plot? Usually, those characters who are in the main character’s life are the first to look to for a subplot: family, lovers, friends, etc.

There is inherent difficulty when you choose a character for a subplot who has no apparent connection to the main character. It can be done, but it is difficult. I have read some sprawling spy novels in which characters are introduced early on who seem to have no connection at all to the main story or the main protagonist, and it is extremely confusing.

Subplots should never obscure the vision of the main story
Subplots should never obscure the vision of the main story | Source

While We Are Discussing Confusion

Beware of having too many subplots. Some authors can pull it off beautifully, but most fail miserably.

So, how many subplots is a good number? In most novels, two or three is sufficient. Any more than that and you risk muddying the waters. You also risk destroying the focus of your readers and scattering sympathy in too many directions. Remember that your readers want to be entertained. They do not want to be confused.

More Requirements of a Successful Subplot

Any subplot must affect, in some way, the outcome of the main plot. Otherwise it is just useless fluff that has no business being in the novel.

Related to that point is the fact that a successful subplot must never distract from the main plot. As a writer you must never lose sight of the main goal, the story itself. I don’t care if you are writing a 200-page novella or a 1,200-page epic, telling a cohesive story must be the primary goal, and the subplot must aid in that cohesiveness.

Similarly, subplots must amplify themes and not just be random musings. They must be supportive and not unconnected.

Do All Novels Need Subplots?

No! There are many examples of successful novels that do not have subplots. They may have several points of view, but only one main plot…but…it is a rare author who can accomplish this task.

We get better as we practice our craft
We get better as we practice our craft | Source

Use This Checklist When Writing a Subplot

The next time you feel an overwhelming need to write a subplot, make sure it meets the following criteria.

Connection: the subplot must connect back to the main plot and intersect with it throughout the story.

A Reason: there must be a reason for your subplot, and that reason must make sense within the main story.

Simultaneous: the subplot must be happening at the same time as the main plot.

Character-related: almost all subplots introduce secondary characters.

Revealing: subplots should reveal characteristics about the main characters.

Fully-developed: every subplot should have a beginning, a middle, and an end (resolution).

Final Effect: all subplots must affect the resolution of the main plot.

And That’s All There Is to It

I’m joking, of course.

Writing good subplots is not easy. In fact, it is downright difficult. However, they can add so much to your novel if you are successful in adding them.

I have found, from personal experience, that subplots are easier to write as we develop our skills as writers. We cannot expect to masterfully craft a coherent and entertaining novel our first time out, but we can expect to learn as we progress…in fact, we should insist upon it.

2014 William D. Holland (aka billybuc)

“Helping writers to spread their wings and fly.”

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    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      No, Glimmer, you can pretty much toss this one aside. It does you no good, but thanks for being here.

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      Glimmer Twin Fan 3 years ago

      This is a helpful article for writers starting out Bill and I always love reading your how to's for writers. Unfortunately they don't pertain to craft & recipe writing so much, unless I want to talk about the details of a recipe ingredient LOL! All joking aside, your articles are always so helpful.

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      jptanabe, that's always an option I guess. :) I like the way you think.

      Thanks for the visit.

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      Jennifer P Tanabe 3 years ago from Red Hook, NY

      Good advice - I agree with not confusing the reader. If the sub plot doesn't affect the outcome of the main plot or develop characteristics of the main character(s), remove it - or write a whole new novel on it perhaps!

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Thank you, CherylsArt....I hope they help her.

    • CherylsArt profile image

      Cheryl Paton 3 years ago from West Virginia

      My daughter likes reading and writing. I'll pass your tips along to her. : )

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Thank you Dianna! It's a lesson I had to learn the hard way, of course. :)

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      Dianna Mendez 3 years ago

      I think your advice on making sure the subplot adds to main plot is most important when developing character. Thanks for the tip and advice.

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Jama, there is a fine line between bravery and foolishness. We shall see. :)

      Thank you for sharing.

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      Joanna McKenna 3 years ago from Central Oklahoma

      Bill, what a brave man you are to take on such a murky and confusing topic! KISS! YES!

      Upped and shared! ;D

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Thank you so much, Jackie. I can say without hesitation that the minute an author starts confusing me, he has lost a reader. When in doubt, follow the KISS rule. :)

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      Jackie Lynnley 3 years ago from The Beautiful South

      So interesting Bill and of course you are right. That is exactly what is wrong in many books to put me off when it starts going in too many directions! I am sure the author brings it altogether in the end but unless they are a very gifted writer indeed; most won't wait around to see! I imagine a good writer just slips these in gracefully and smoothly; one off another to avoid the jerky feeling in some books that makes you go, "huh?" and start not even caring, lol.

      You are a great teacher, friend; and give us much to think about to help us grow. To judge our own work as we do others.

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Deb, spoken like a true writer. Thank you!

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      To work indeed, Brian. Thank you and have a great week.

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Thank you ChitrangadaSharan! I appreciate you visiting.

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      Deb Hirt 3 years ago from Stillwater, OK

      Great explanation, Billy. The subplot is the spokes to the wheel.

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      Brian Leekley 3 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA

      This is a very helpful tutorial. Thanks. Now, to work.

    • ChitrangadaSharan profile image

      Chitrangada Sharan 3 years ago from New Delhi, India

      Excellent advice and some great tips on the importance of subplots and how they have to be written.

      Thanks for sharing!

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      You betcha, vkwok, and thank you.

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Thank you Dora! If you do get a chance to read Tobias, I'm fairly certain you will enjoy it. It is about us all.

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      You are very welcome, Vellur, and thank you.

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Thank you Alicia. Not one of my better articles, but I'm glad others liked it.

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Thank you Paula. I'm glad you enjoyed it and found it useful.

    • vkwok profile image

      Victor W. Kwok 3 years ago from Hawaii

      Thanks for sharing more amazing tips, Bill!

    • MsDora profile image

      Dora Weithers 3 years ago from The Caribbean

      I appreciate this. The subplot even in movies usually get my attention. When its well done, the whole story is easier to follow. BTW, Resurrecting Tobias is on my To Do List when I get back to the States, God Willing. Thanks for demonstrating what you teach.

    • Vellur profile image

      Nithya Venkat 3 years ago from Dubai

      A great hub about subplots. The checklist that you have provided is very useful. Thank you for sharing.

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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      This is good information, as always, Bill. Subplots can be very interesting. You've given us some important guidelines for creating them.

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      Paula Atwell 3 years ago from Cleveland, OH

      Another excellent writing resource. Will definitely revisit this one later. Shared it on for you. :)

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Thank you Faith. It is a good weekend my friend. The last great weather of the summer. I hope yours is as good.

      blessings always

      bill

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Indeed it is, Sheila. Thanks and good luck.

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Jo, rules at times have to be broken. You are the author. Do it the way it works best for you and no sweat on one of the rules. Best wishes my friend, and thank you.

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Michelle, you summarized it all perfectly. Thank you for the visit and for sharing.

    • Faith Reaper profile image

      Faith Reaper 3 years ago from southern USA

      Hi Bill,

      Thanks for sharing your great insight here as to subplots. Subplots, if done right, add great depth to any story and not all writers are able to pull it together, but those who do are the brilliant writers.

      Hope you are enjoying a wonderful weekend.

      Peace and blessings always

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      sheilamyers 3 years ago

      Billy: Thanks for the brief answer. I thought that's what you'd say.

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      Jo Alexis-Hagues 3 years ago from Bedfordshire, U.K

      Bill, more great information. In my story, I have a few strong characters, the two main ones will eventually come together in an explosive end, I hope so anyway. I've written the most significant subplot in italic, as the events are taking place at a different place and time but directly relates to the main characters so there; I've already broken one of the rules. :) But hey...I'm writing again and as always you re a great help. Take care and my best to you.

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      Michelle Liew 3 years ago from Singapore

      Yes, if woven well, they add depth to the story. Otherwise, it's a straight, flat line in many ways. Yet, it mustn't become so convoluted that it kills the story too! Takes a lot of skill!

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Thank you Flourish! I hope your weekend is productive and fun.

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Hi Ruby! Thanks for stopping by and have a great weekend.

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Thank you DDE! I appreciate your kindness.

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Thank you goatfury. I've actually done quite a few tutorial hubs like this.

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Frank, subplots are hard for every novel writer. You are not alone my friend. Thanks for stopping by.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      This was useful information, and I like the checklist of what to include. Great topic!

    • always exploring profile image

      Ruby Jean Fuller 3 years ago from Southern Illinois

      I never thought about subplots, now I will. Thank's again for all you do..

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      Devika Primić 3 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

      Great hub from as always I learn best from your informative and well-explained details.

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      Andrew Smith 3 years ago from Richmond, VA

      Great advice. I'd like to see more hubs like this!

    • Frank Atanacio profile image

      Frank Atanacio 3 years ago from Shelton

      subplots are very difficult for me it is the main reason I stick to quick fiction.. but this hub et al.. very helpful thanks billy

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Bill, class is adjourned for the week. Thanks for your great attendance. Now, go have a wonderful weekend. :)

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      Bill De Giulio 3 years ago from Massachusetts

      Hi Bill. Every day you educate us a little more. Eventually it all adds up to the equivalent of getting an education in how to write. You know you could teach a night course in writing. I'm willing to bet it would be a very popular class. Thanks for the education, and have a great weekend.

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Lori, thank you again for purchasing the book. Truth be told, Pete was my favorite character of the three....interesting that you mentioned him....anyway, have a wonderful weekend and I'm glad you gave flash fiction a try.

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      Lori Colbo 3 years ago from Pacific Northwest

      Currently reading your book. I love Pete. As to subplots, this is very helpful. I am practicing a little fiction writing with short stories, and last night I did a flash fiction story. It was hard to make a significant powerful story in 150 words, but I really enjoyed the challenge. Maybe one day soon an attempt at a book.

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      You are very welcome, Marie. Thank you for the visit.

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Nadine, bravo! You were doing it correctly without even knowing it. LOL The sign of a good writer. Thank you for being here once again.

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Great question, Sheila, and I think I'll save it for the mailbag....my opinion only....in a series, the resolution can come later in another book. Thanks for that, though, and have a great weekend.

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      I will, Jaye. I just got tired of the subject and stopped. LOL I think I wore down by the time I wrote this one.

      Thank you and Happy Weekend to you.

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Alan, you are killing me slowly with your humor. This one is actually much shorter than normal. I just ran out of words and said "to hell with it." LOL Thank you, sir, and enjoy your weekend.

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      Marie Moreton 3 years ago from Pembrokeshire

      Thank you. A good and valuable learning lesson for me. Very much appreciated.

    • Nadine May profile image

      Nadine May 3 years ago from Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa

      I always learn something new from your writing lessons, this time on having subplots characters. I never knew the term, but unknowingly I do have several in my novels. So much so that I have a cast of characters and a genealogy page at the back of each novel. Before my novels were born the cast of characters came first, and each play a part in the plot. You have my vote as always.

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      sheilamyers 3 years ago

      Thanks for the advice. I think I usually hit all of those points when writing a subplot, but one statement brought up a question. You say: "Final Effect: all subplots must affect the resolution of the main plot." I have to ask if this is always true or only true of books that are not part of a series? In a series, it seems that some subplots do affect the resolution of the main plot of an individual book while others continue throughout the series. I think I know how you will answer this question, but I ask it here so you can add a further explanation (or perhaps use it for a hub idea) so other writers will have the benefit of your thoughts and opinions.

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      Jaye Denman 3 years ago from Deep South, USA

      This one is definitely worthy of a bookmark, Bill, and if you do add to it, please 'recycle.'

      Voted Up++

      Jaye

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      Alan R Lancaster 3 years ago from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire)

      Interesting, could be explored and exploited. Useful if your book is written from the point of view of a 'god' figure: everywhere and watches everything. Then you can start from more than one point - like 'Centennial' - and bring the different strands together in a common 'action'. Or, something different, be the narrator - something like the 'god' character - and wrap two or more 'strands' together. It's useful in detective stories - like NYC - or war stories in the style of 'The Longest Day'.

      Not very handy if you're the narrator as part of the story. You can't be elsewhere unless... you're some kind of Merlin figure.

      This one's too short Bill. Can't you add something else to it, like 'illustrations' or cases in point?

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Bill, I appreciate those kind words. Thank you my friend, and have a fantastic weekend in Missouri.

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Melissa, I'll answer both in the mailbag, but I can do it here too....Kindle? I don't have a clue what those programs are, but i'll look into them by next week...novella and subplots? I would say no more than two subplots due to the shortened length of the novella.

      Thanks as always, and have a great weekend.

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      William Leverne Smith 3 years ago from Hollister, MO

      One of your few articles where I felt the need to read every comment, as well. Interesting. Great subject, some great comments, as well. We each do hang on your every word, and what others say in response. I believe that crowns you a great writer. One opinion, for sure. You cause us to think about our own writing, which is your intent. Keep up the great work. This was a super article. Thanks for sharing! ;-)

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      Melissa Propp 3 years ago from Minnesota

      Very interesting article Bill. Refresh my memory please...How many subplots for a Novella? Also, I have acompletely separate question for the mailbag series... How do you feel about the new Amazon Kindle Unlimited program or the Kindle Select programs for self-publishers?

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      I believe that to be true, Beth. Thanks for the visit. It's always nice to see you.

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      You are very welcome, Pawpaw...thank you!

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      MizB, I don't remember the book, but I first ran across that technique about ten years ago...several subplots going on simultaneously...confused the hell out of me at first. Now i'm used to it, and it can be effective...but it takes a good writer to pull it off.

      Thanks as always. I'm glad I was able to "teach" you something. :)

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Lizzy, I watched the first two episodes of that show, and I was Lost. LOL I couldn't resist.

      boy howdy indeed

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      DJ...I'm going to get us in trouble??? I'm not the one who mentioned a good rubbing. LOL

      I could do that...a DJ rating system. LOL I love it!

      No rest for the wicked or the driven...I'm afraid I'm a goner.

      Have a great weekend my friend.

      bill

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      Beth Perry 3 years ago from Tennesee

      billybuc, this is a very nicely written article on the subject, and useful as well. Those subplots can be instrumental to bringing an element of realism to the plot and in making the characters more human for the reader.

      Voted up.

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      Jim 3 years ago from Kansas

      Thanks. More information digested for future use.

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      MizBejabbers 3 years ago

      Thanks Bill, I needed a lesson in how to write a good subplot. I think I can learn a lot from you and Rachael about novel writing. I also think it gives me a basis for some of the critiques I write or would like to write and just can't put my finger on what is wrong with the subplots. Have you noticed that the tendency among many writers is that there is little or no story, just five or six subplots that meet and solve (hopefully) the problem at the end? Raymond Feist is good example. then there is George R.R. Martin's Game of Thrones, which at this point has no ending. It really tires the reader out. Thanks for the lesson.

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      Liz Davis 3 years ago from Hudson, FL

      This made me think of that TV show Lost. There were so many subplots--and each one was interesting--but all together with so many characters coming and going, it became confusing. At the end, they couldn't tie up all the loose ends and left a lot of unanswered questions. Sorry, I know that's not a book. lol But someone had to write it, right? Boy howdy.

    • profile image

      DJ Anderson 3 years ago

      Great words of advice.

      However, my brain is on overload and is shorting out.

      If you would be so kind as to 'rate' your information from #1 to #10,

      then I could skip 1-9 and just absorb the super valuable articles. Or, you could preface it with, "This one's for you, DJ." It would save me time

      and energy, and you would never have to worry about my brain exploding all over the screen.

      I swear, you are like the Energizer Bunny. Give it a rest!!

      Just kidding!!! Felt it was time for me to give you a good ribbing. NO, not rubbing--ribbing. Ah, gees, you are gonna get us both in trouble!

      DJ. :-)

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Rachael, you obviously get it. You said it all in your comment, and I really can't add a darned thing to what you said. Nicely worded and I thank you.

      Have a great weekend my friend.

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Mari, I suspect you can do random quite well. You'll get the hang of it as your story unfolds. Thanks for the chuckle.

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Thank you, Sally, and I hope you have a fantastic weekend as well.

      bill

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      And you once again bring a smile to my face, Ann. Thank you!

      bill

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      Ann Carr 3 years ago from SW England

      You are that good but the fact that you don't flaunt it makes you the person you are. Brilliant and lovely!! :)

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      Rachael O'Halloran 3 years ago from United States

      So many writers want to just tell a story, and use very little backstory (insert a By the way paragraph here, a By the way paragraph there). They could be subplotting their character's backstory deeper to make the characters more interesting (to love 'em or hate 'em).

      For me, I use subplots show who characters are, if they are minor characters then I show how they support my story. I try to work my storyline to touch most of the cast of characters, even if it is only as an acquaintance. Often my acquaintance ends up becoming so likeable, which is how you have your star for book 2.

      I must be an out of the ordinary kind of writer, because I think subplots are the best way to keep my story going, make some reveals about minor characters relationship to the primary, the reasons for their present dilemma/behavior, then tie them up in a nice neat package to meet in the last few chapters.

      I get a lot of mileage out of at least 2 subplots, but not with so much detailing that one has to take notes.

      The topic of subplots is much needed article to show writers how to create and incorporate more into their works to keep the reader's interest and make a good book - a better book.

      Thanks for writing on this topic. It is one I enjoy.

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Ann, I don't think my head will ever be too big. I don't allow myself to believe I'm that good. :) Something I'll always deal with I'm afraid. As for lists...I'm the King of Post its. I have little reminders all over my writing studio. I couldn't get through a day without them.

      Have a wonderful weekend my friend.

      bill

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      I'm glad to hear it, Michelle. Thanks for the visit and happy weekend to you.

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Rhonda, many authors do map out their stories. I see the advantage of it for sure. There are actually some online apps you can buy that provide this mapping service. Anyway, bless you always and have a great weekend.

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      dragonflycolor 3 years ago

      Subplots?! I'm still working on the main plot. Adding depth to my writing is so random it's inconceivable, Bill. LOL.

    • billybuc profile image
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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Thank you Marlene. Resurrecting Tobias was my first real attempt at subplots. I'm glad you approve of the outcome, and I mean that sincerely.

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      They do for sure, DealForALiving. Thank you and happy weekend to you.

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Cool beans indeed, Sha. Carry on; you don't need my help at all. :)

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      Sally Gulbrandsen 3 years ago from Norfolk

      Thank you again Billy, will have to bookmark this one for sometime in the future. I hope you have a good week-end.

      Sally

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      Ann Carr 3 years ago from SW England

      I know what tillsontitan means; it makes my head spin too sometimes!

      I'm one of those people who always need reminding about basic stuff - I like lists so that I can refer to them and they collate all the information needed. So thank you for this, bill.

      Your advice is always so useful to all of us. You remind, cajole, suggest and encourage, always with good humour. Head big enough yet?!

      Have a great weekend, bill!

      Ann

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      Michelle Scoggins 3 years ago from Fresno, CA

      Thank you Bill for the guidance once again. This will nicely fit with my project as I start the tidying up process. Have a great Friday and weekend :)

    • Rhonda Lytle profile image

      Rhonda Lytle 3 years ago from Deep in the heart of Dixie

      The point about don't go overboard with the subplots put me in mind of my favorite author, the late Robert Jordan. He was the king of subplots, so much so that I ended up having to take notes starting on about the fourth or fifth book in the series. I've never seen anyone else pull it off like he did, though King is really good at it too.

      This was interesting. It makes me think perhaps mapping things would be easier than just starting to type. God love you for sharing.

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      Marlene Bertrand 3 years ago from Northern California, USA

      Very useful tips, Bill. The advice that hit me the hardest is the one where you say the subplot must be happening at the same time as the main plot. I like the way you treat the subplots in Resurrecting Tobias. They truly enhance the journey.

    • DealForALiving profile image

      Sam Deal 3 years ago from Earth

      Thanks for writing this up Billy. Good subplots make for fun stories.

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      Shauna L Bowling 3 years ago from Central Florida

      I'm working on a subplot now with The Gifts of Faith. It's not complete, but so far it seems to meet the criteria you cite above. Cool beans!

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Thank you Janine. You are such a good friend. Enjoy your weekend my friend.

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Thanks Mary. Honestly, this one bored me to tears. LOL I'm glad someone else liked it.

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      Janine Huldie 3 years ago from New York, New York

      Bill, I truly thank you for this bit of advice on subplots today and definitely pinning this to refer back to. Thank you again and totally wishing you a wonderful weekend ahead now!

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      Mary Craig 3 years ago from New York

      Another masterpiece! Sometimes I'm afraid my head will burst with all the good information you give us, but I know in the end it won't, well, I don't think it will....maybe that's my next subplot ;)

      Voted up, useful, awesome, interesting, pinned and shared.

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      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      My pleasure, Doris. Thanks for stopping by, and have a great weekend.

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      Doris H. Dancy 3 years ago from Yorktown, Virginia

      You have given all of us writers some excellent advice here. I was checking myself as I read, and hopefully, I have done all of these things in my novel. In any event, I think I have. (smile) Thank you for reminding us of what should be whether it is or not. Useful and Voted up!