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Neem - Foundation of life

Updated on June 19, 2009

neem tree

http://www.flickr.com/photos/yeoh_ts/825577676/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/yeoh_ts/825577676/

Classification of Neem

Neem is a miracle tree found in India. It is called a miracle tree because it can cure diseases, cure illness, control pest and can act as a fertilizers as well. in this hub i would like to add some scientific information about neem, as far as medicinal value is concerned that is present in other hubs and i do not want to repeat it. In this i would like to share the agronomy of this plant.

Names: Neem, Nimba, Indian lilac (english), Azad Dirakth (Persian)

Kingdom: Plantae

Divison: Magnoliophyta

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Sapindales

Family: Meliaceae

Scientific Name: Azadirachta indica

Genus: Azadirachta

Species: Indica

There are some other species of this plant like Azadirachta juss and A. azaderac . Out of these the common of these is A. indica which is native of India and almost each part of it is used in medicine.

Origin and Spread

Neem is native of India, Pakistan, Thailand, Burma or Thailand. Its actual origin is still debateable, but it is for sure that it originated in the Indian subcontinent and from there it spread to different parts of the world. as neem is considered in India as a very important part of the household and is very much respected for its medicinal value, it spread with the migration of people. it is said that when people from India were taken as slave to the Fiji islands, with them they took the seeds, kernels of neem. As neem can grow in various temperature, it flourished in tropical and warmer climates of Fiji and from there is spread to the south Pacific islands. Now neem is cultivated in central and south America, West Indies and Australia as well. I did a little bit of research on Internet and found that it is also available for sale in some parts of America as well.

Neem twigs used as toothbrush and toothpaste

http://www.flickr.com/photos/meanestindian/3251243918/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/meanestindian/3251243918/

Agronomy of Neem

Propagation: Neem can easily propagated by seeds during the monsoon season, spring season. Although it can be grown by cuttings but the best way to propagate is seeds as they are available in abundant in the monsoon season in India. You can collect the seeds directly from the plant and propagate straight into the soil or in the seed raising mix. They do not have any dormant period. The viability of seed is around 3- 4 weeks after harvest unless they are stored under the proper moisture and humidity (special conditions). If you want to propagate it for yourself you should not try to store it and propagate it as soon as you harvest the seed. You should protect the seedlings from frost in the early stages of growth. once the tree establishes itself you do not have to worry about it.

Hardiness:- It is a very hardy plant and can tolerate heavy prunning, cutting and damage by insects, animals etc. It is highly adviced to protect it in early years so that you can have a single, strong sturdy stem and a very large canopy. It can easily live up to 200 years.

neem leaf

http://www.flickr.com/photos/fine-grain/2703934849/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/fine-grain/2703934849/

Leaves:- It has smooth, compound leaves with resin secreting glands near the shoot apex; thats the reason that you sometime find ants climbing the tree to suck the nectar from the new growth. You do not have to worry about it but if you very much concerned you can spray it with imidacloprid (confidor) easily available in the market. It will take care of ants and other sucking pests on your plant. Once it eastablishes itself you do not have to worry about it. The damaged tissues sometime secret gum which has its own medicinal value.

neem flower

http://www.flickr.com/photos/scilit/2642357925/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/scilit/2642357925/

 

Flowers:- Neem flowers are white in color. Flower buds of neem open in the evening and produce some scent at night which attracts many pollinators. In India it flowers between January to May which means that in will start flowering during the end of winter and will flower upto very hot summer. In other words it starts flowering at 10 degree celsius (day temperature) to 26 degree celsius (day temperature).

neem fruit

http://www.flickr.com/photos/herbal_products/3159147554/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/herbal_products/3159147554/

Fruiting:- Neem starts fruiting after 3 years and in about one decade it can produce up to 45 kg of fruits annually.

 

Climate and Soil :Neem is evergreen tree. It grows to the height of about 20 meters and a girth of 25 meters. it can grow on soils ranging from sandy soil (less in nutrients) to a very rich and fertile black soils of volcanic origin. As far as temperature is considered it can tolerate very high temperature but is susceptible to frost. Neem performs better in the areas which have an annual rainfall ranging from > 400mm to 1200mm. The tap root of neem is nearly twice the height of the plant which makes it survival possible in deserts as well. The best soil to grow neem should be well drained, the pH does not matter and it can compete with any sort of weeds. It can tolerate acid soils aswell.

Neem -foundation of life

Chemicals in Neem

It has thousands of chemical but the chemical which is very important is Azadirachtin. It is a terpenoid which as medicinal and pesticidal properties. Neem terpenoids are present in all parts of the plant but most abundantly found in seed kernels. The kernels contain about 30-40% oil whereas the azadirachtin content of the kernel vary from 0.2 to 0.6%. Besides the terpenoids, neem also contains more than 20 sulphur containing compounds responsible for the pungent smell when crushed.

Uses of Neem

  1. It is used in different medical preparations
  2. Neem oil is used for preparing soap, shampoo,creams and skin care treatment products.
  3. It is used as a pesticide to control insects, mites, nematodes and other chewing and sucking types of pest withouth harming the beneficial inestcs (honey bee).
  4. it is also used for mass planting in deserts as it has very low water requirement.
  5. Neem powder is also used to treat diabetes type 2 patients.

  6. Neem leaves are also used for storing the food grains.

  7. Neem twigs are used as toothbrush in some parts of the world.

    There is a lot of information availble on internet on the use of neem, so i would not like to repeat it.

Neem and Pest Control

 Neem has been very effective to control the pest in your garden. There are few products available in the market to conrol the pests in your garden.

  1. Neem oil: anybody who knows organic farming knows about it. Neem oil is a safe alternative to use on all vegetables and fruits as it does not have any with holding period so you can consume straight after spraying (better to wait for at least one day).
  2. Neem Granules: This also a very popular product readily available in the market. if you do not want to spary with the neem oil you can spread the neem granules and get rid of the pest
  3. Neem coated Urea(fertilizer containing 46% nitrogen): This is a product which is not readily available in the retail stores because it is not very popular and you do not apply only urea in home garden but if you have a very big garden and use urea as a source of nitrogen you can get it from specific suppliers. As nitrogen is immobilised in few hours after application, this can improve the nitrogen availability to the plants.

how to prepare neem spray

Sustainability and Neem

In my opinion if we think of sustainability we should think of neem as well. Neem oil and other neem products are readily avialable in market and you can use them in your garden or better if the climate permits you can plant a neem tree in your backyard.

i can assure you one thing that you will never have to pay for toothpaste or toothbrush in your life if you have this tree in your backyard. This will save you a lot of money.

 

In the end i acknowledge all the images i have used from the flickr.com (Thanks a lot)

Pest Contorlled by Neem

 Neem can control a wide range of pests like  whitefly, aphids, jassids, mites and caterpillars. However to achieve the best result some procedures need to be followed.

  1. If there is high intensity of pest problem use neem with conjuction of other pesticides available in market and then you can slowly decrease the use of synthetic chemicals and just use neem by itself.
  2. You can use neem in conjuction with other insecticide as an alternate spray to break the resistance in the pests.
  3. If using a wettable powder, mix it and use it immediately. The delay in using can decrease its potency.
  4. It is better to spray in the morning or evening, better morning to get the best results.
  5. Regular spray (every 7 -10 days) can achieve best results. Spray at early stages of insect development are more effective than on the adult stages.

Comments

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    • profile image

      Kasaahun Mammo 

      6 years ago

      According to (Schumutterer, 1998), Neem has been introduced to almost all tropical and subtropical regions but is still rare in Ethiopia, where it is found only in one place, Metema, in the northwest of Amhara National Regional State (ANRS), in the north of the country.

      This information is not quit right, In fact, no survey for Neem tree in Ethiopia is conducted so far, this lack of information created a huge lacuna. There are morethan 20 places in different regions of Ethiopia where neem has been introduce and currently grown. These are in Somali Region (Gode; Kelaffo, Dega-Habour, Fafan, Shinile and JigJiga) In Dire Dawa Council; in Afar Region (Hummera, Assayita Gewane, Metehara and Awash) In Gambela and Benishangul-Gumuz; Tigraye also has neem trees in Ramma. Again recently in Oromiya Region in Tolay icipe / BioVision introduced Neem along with other botanical plant species in 2011 with the intention to the future establishment of provenance trials. Most neem trees are grown as ornament and shade tree on avenue, park and market places.

      Kassashun Mammo T

      icipe/ BioVision Ethiopia

      Cell Phone +251 911 137361

    • profile image

      R.LENIN 

      8 years ago

      WE MANUFACTURER AND EXPORTER OF NEEM AND KARANJ BASED BIOPESTICIDES AND BIOFERTILISERS THOSE WHO ARE INTERESTED IN OUR PRODUCTS PLEASE CONTACT US AT arunnaturals@live.com

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