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Plant Peonies for Beauty

Updated on July 6, 2017

Perennial Peonies

One of the longest living, as well as most beautiful perennials you can grow in your garden is the peony. With lush green foliage and gorgeous huge blossoms, few ornamental garden plants can rival them.

Most garden peonies - there are over 30 species, and innumerable cultivars - are herbaceous, dying back to the root in autumn. Next year's buds form underground at the crown of the plant, so this makes it a hardy perennial.

When established, peonies have a bushy appearance, with abundant deeply lobed leaves on stalks. Peonies can grow from two to four feet in height, and similarly in diameter, so support is often needed. Special peony rings are available, or stakes with string threaded between will do the job.

This green foliage is striking, but it is the luscious sweet-smelling flowers that make this plant such a favorite.

Peony Blossoms

The blossoms vary from single blooms with 5 petals to full-petaled double blooms in colors from white to pink, red deep maroon, yellow, and even an almost-black - any color but blue.

The single blooms have large central stamens, while in the double blooms, the dense center petals are actually transformed stamens!

Different cultivars flower at different times, so by choosing a variety of peony cultivars, the flowering season can extend for up to six weeks. The spent blooms should be removed so energy can go into the plant and not seed production.

In fall, cut the stems back to about an inch above the ground.

History of Peonies

The peony (Paeonia) is indigenous many areas - southern Europe, western North America and Asia.

It is the Chinese Peony (Paeonia lactiflora) that is the father of most of the several hundred available cultivars. It was first introduced to England in the mid 1700s, and is the species that has produced most of our common garden peonies.

The second type of peony is the tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa). Tree peonies have a woody stem, and new spring growth occurs on the one-year old wood. They also come in a range of colors, and bloom around the same time as herbaceous peonies. The large blooms are held high on sturdy stems, so there is no need to stake tree peonies.

Tree Peony Blossom
Tree Peony Blossom
Semi-double Peony
Semi-double Peony

Cultivating Peonies

Peonies develop a large thick tuberous root system, and can live years without dividing. In fact, you should never divide a peony that is less than five years old. When you notice that they are flowering less, that's the time to divide them.

Division should be done in the fall, as its less stressful for the plants.Dig up the root clump, wash it clean of soil and cut apart the thick roots with a sharp knife. Make sure each section has from 3 to 5 eyes.

Re-plant the peony with the root crown about 2 inches below the soil surface. Any deeper, and blooming will be retarded. Space your plants about 3 feet apart, as they are large when full grown.

Peonies transplant well, and can be moved in either spring or fall, as long as you leave lots of soil around the roots.

Peonies like well drained soil, and can tolerate some drought. Standing water is fatal for them. They like a sunny location, and deep rich organic soil. Hardy in zones 2 to 8, peonies require some winter chill while they are dormant, so do not thrive in warmer climates.

Peonies need a dormant cold period to thrive. They do not grow well south of zone 8, and will thrive in areas where there is extensive cold, as long as there is snow cover. In warmer zones, such as 8 and 7, plant early-blooming varieties. Later blooming varieties may not flower well in hot summer weather.

Single Peony Blossom
Single Peony Blossom


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    • Nolimits Nana profile image

      Nicolette Goff 5 years ago from British Columbia

      Fluffy77 - one of things I love about peonies is how long they live - and how tolerant they are of varying climates. They grew beautifully in my yard when we lived in Edmonton, Alberta, where temperatures in winter got below minus 30!

    • faythef profile image

      Faythe F. 5 years ago from USA

      Peonies are beautiful. Unfortunately for me , they don't grow in my part of the world :(

    • Fluffy77 profile image

      Fluffy77 6 years ago from Enterprise, OR

      We have peonies that my Grandmother had planted here first. She is no longer with us which makes them all the more special to us now. I just love them too, there beauty I think is timeless.

    • craftybegonia profile image

      craftybegonia 7 years ago from Southwestern, United States

      I love peonies! They are so lovely! Thank you for the article. The photos are gorgeous!

    • profile image

      Paula7928 7 years ago from Michigan

      Hi, I enjoyed your hub. I just wrote my first hub on how to plant peony plants. and will be making some more hub pages soon.

    • Nolimits Nana profile image

      Nicolette Goff 8 years ago from British Columbia

      Thanks for visiting, RGraf and Brenda. They are one of my garden favourites.

    • profile image

      \Brenda Scully 8 years ago

      What a wonderful hub..... Peonies are so beautiful, it is a long time since I have seen a peony, some are so paper thin they look like tissue, the pictures that accompany this hub are truly awesome.... enjoyed it very much...

    • RGraf profile image

      Rebecca Graf 8 years ago from Wisconsin

      Ours are coming up now. I cannot wait to see them in the morning light!