ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

"Civil Rights: Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Jr. & Myles Horton in Tennessee."

Updated on September 24, 2008

Çivil Rghts in Aided in Tennessee

"Civil Rights: Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Jr. & Myles Horton in Tennessee."

By Franklin and Betty J. Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

May 17, 2008, marked the 54th year since passage of the Brown v. Board of Education, when the U.S. Supreme Court declared separate white and black schools unequal and unconstitutional. In Brown's wake came the rising crescendo of the civil rights movement.

It is interesting to connect this early movement for racial justice with Tennessee where the authors live.

In 1955, after a long day of hard work Rosa Parks boarded a nearly empty Montgomery, AL, bus which quickly filled. She refused to move to the back of the bus, was arrested, jailed, and fined.

Rosa Parks belonged to the Montgomery Baptist Church whose new pastor was 26-year-old Atlanta-born Boston University-educated Martin Luther King, Jr. The Rev. King agreed with the previous pastor's and congregation's earlier decision to speak truth to power should a racial incident occur. Deciding to boycott the city buses, they held out for a full year. Foot-weary but soon aided by black and sympathetic white carpools, they finally won.

What ties Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King to middle Tennessee is Myles Horton's Highlander Adult Education Center. Well before Brown v. Board of Education Highlander, the only place in Tennessee where the races could discuss common problems, began at Monteagle, Grundy County, TN (1932-61). It was briefly closed by powerful white supremacy forces but reappeared in Knoxville (1961-71) and still continues at New Market near Knoxville. Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Andrew Young, and many other civil rights leaders at Highlander seminars learned peaceful protest techniques and ways to organize citizenship schools for voting rights.

Rosa Parks said that she first learned at Highlander to trust whites, that without Highlander experience she would not have had the courage to challenge Montgomery bus segregation.

Born in west Tennessee and a graduate of old Cumberland University, young Myles Horton organized vacation Bible schools for the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, in which he was raised. At Ozone, TN, he first got parents of his Bible school children to talk about their problems. He shared his dream of an adult education center with Crossville, TN's Congregational pastor, the Rev. Abram Nightingale, who encouraged Horton to study the social gospel at New York's Union Theological Seminary. Further study at the University of Chicago and a visit to Denmark's adult folk schools led Horton to found Highlander.

With a tiny staff, he trained coal mine union leaders (recall the 1930s Wilder, TN, and other mine strikes?), then trained textile worker union members (recall the Norma Rae film with Sally Field?), and then trained black citizenship school teachers to help unschooled African Americans to read and write and so qualify to vote.

Highlander used discussion, drama, and music to mellow differences, find common ground, and lift spirits. "We Shall Overcome," the freedom song heard round the world, began as an African-American folk song, became an African Americans Baptist hymn, and was reborn at Highlander where folk singers Zilphia Horton (Myles Horton's wife), Guy Carawan, and Pete Seeger made it world famous.

Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in 1968; Myles Horton died in 1990. Rosa Parks died in 2005.

It is interesting to recall that what drew these three and others together to foment the early civil rights movement was Myles Horton's Highlander Adult Education Center in Tennessee.

End. E-mail comments, questions to: bfparker@frontiernet.net

For authors’ blogs on persons mentioned in above article, see:

http://www.manicfish.com/myblog.php?bbn=bfparker&story_id=12751

and:

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&ie=ISO-8859-1&q=bfparker%2C+Martin+Luther+King%2C+Jr.%2C+Prophet+in+the+Making&btnG=Search

and:

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&ie=ISO-8859-1&q=bfparker%2C+Martin+Luther+King%2C+Jr.&btnG=Google+Search

End. bfparker@frontiernet.net

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      web optimization 

      6 years ago

      It's really a cool and helpful piece of information. I'm satisfied that you shared this helpful information with us. Please stay us informed like this. Thanks for sharing it on bandfparker.hubpages.com

    • profile image

      8 years ago

      great blog

    • Hannah Ministries profile image

      Hannah Ministries 

      8 years ago

      fabulous information! THanks

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)