ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

How Nursing Models Are Applied in a Professional Environment

Updated on April 23, 2008

Impact of Nursing Models on Adult Critical Care

Spiritual Caring for Adult Critical Care

Studies revealed that the quality of life for cancer patients and their significant others can be enhanced by a variety of psychosocial interventions. Nursing interventions focusing on meeting both physiological and psychological needs of the patient could greatly help the patient and her family. And knowing how to handle this patient concern would greatly facilitate the patient’s situation. At the same time, help nurses cope with any eventuality.

Spiritual facilitation is one way where nurses could provide the needed care or assistance to patient in facing adult critical care issues such as breast cancer. The nursing conceptual models could effectively support this function in order to promote positive client and family resolution to the matter.

There is a close correlation among the proposed approach of spiritual facilitation, intervention, nursing education and conceptual models of nursing. There is a need for nurses to acquire basic education in providing spiritual intervention in relation to breast cancer or adult critical care issues.

Spirituality pertains to the essential awareness of one’s soul or spirit and is senses within each person, apart from the beliefs of others. Spirituality is transcendence over the physical body. Spiritual awareness goes beyond physical reality in order to create a sense of meaning and purpose to human life.

The American healthcare system recognized the need to treat patients using a holistic approach. Holism treats the client and/or family as a whole that includes the body, mind and spirit. The holistic approach focuses on the healthcare services extended to the patient that assist not only the physical or emotional needs but also the spiritual aspect.

The Joint Commission of Accreditation for Healthcare Organization (JCAHO) sets the basis on nursing standards to attain quality, outcomes-oriented client/patient care. JCAHO includes spiritual care as one of their standards of care. The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) recognized spiritual distress as a nursing diagnosis that will accomplish the measure set by the standard. Spiritual distress is a condition in which an individual or group experiences conflict in their faith or value system in which they cling on to for strength, hope and life’s meaning.

Spiritual provision is relevant in the practice of nursing. Three of the nursing models that espoused the concept of spiritual facilitation are Neuman’s System model, Rogers Science of the Unitary Human Being and King’s General Systems Framework. Each has a unique viewpoint with regards to this issue.

Betty Neuman’s Systems Model

The client/client system factor of Neuman’s model concentrates on the relationship

between the client and the caregiver/nurse, taking into consideration the perceptions of the caregiver and how those perceptions affect the client. These perceptions are lines of defense and resistance.

For example, if the nurse (consciously or unconsciously) feels some difficulties and obstacles in providing competent EOL care, these will come out as stressors. If one or more stressors are present for a period of time, the stressor will affect the nurses’ adaptability of defense and the normal line of defense will be invaded. This may cause an ineffective reaction to the stressor. A tangible example of this would be a nurse who has a patient that wants to talk about spiritual issues. If the nurse is bothered by those issues, the nurse would most likely either avoid the patient or delegate the responsibility to a chaplain or minister. This situation may not be suitable for the client especially if he or she has some reluctance on approaching a religious.

Neuman’s model combines the characteristics of the systems category of nursing knowledge - the open and closed systems. The open system preserves itself in an incessant inflow and outflow, a building up and breaking down of components. The closed system, on the other hand, is considered to be unaffected by its environment.

Neuman believes that stress and conflict are the forces that change the client/client system structure through the interconnecting variables coming from the internal and external environment.

Rogers’ Science of the Unitary Human Being

Rogers Martha focuses on the ‘unitary, irreducible human being and their environment’. She believes that the Science of Unitary Human Beings ‘is not of the same order as the other conceptual models, nor does it derived from the same world view. The Science of Unitary Human Beings does not deal with health problems, but rather is concerned with the evolution of change in the direction of wherever the human beings think they are going.’ (Rogers, 1987c)

Roger’s concepts espoused the simultaneous world-view as opposed to the popularly held Reaction and Reciprocal conceptual world-views. The reaction world-view pertains to the capacity of human beings to only respond to environmental change in a linear manner. Human responds in order to maintain stability as changes occurs. Change in behavior therefore is due to cause and effect.

In the reciprocal world-view as held by Rogers, maintains that the Unitary Human Being is in constant state of change that leads or results in establishing patterns of behavior. The interaction between the human being and the environment is a rhythmic, continuous and unpredictable phenomenon that serves as the direction for patterning the Self into a complex, organized unitary human being.

Rogers’ meta-paradigm concepts of person, environment and energy fields also relates to spirituality. According to Rogers, energy fields are ‘fundamental units of the living and non-living that signify the dynamic nature of the field in which the field is in continuous motion and is infinite.” “Both human beings and their environments are conceptualized as energy fields with boundaries that do not end at the physical body. Rogers (1986, p.5) states: “..human and environmental fields are infinite and integral with one another.”


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)