ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Adharma

Updated on December 20, 2016

Adharma

ADHARMA

By Prof. A.D.Sarkar

The shraman left for his home in Dakshin Desh somewhere in the modern day Coromandal coast. He missed the blue ocean and the food but above all his language. Siddhartha was disappointed at himself for missing him and became thoughtful as he remembered that he concluded sometime ago that unbearable grief and hence dukkha arose out of attachment to a living being. He decided to move to Gaya for no particular reason but before that he asked the Vedaparaga about adharma, anti-dharma. The Vedaparaga smiled as he said that almost everyone asked about dharma not adharma.

Siddhartha answered immediately. He said that he had thought deeply about what dharma, the code of conduct or societal law was all about. It is codified that a warrior class can fight to kill and be killed but a brahmin must abandon physical violence. The shudra class must be content to spend his life doing manual labour. He found such rigid codes very unfair. He wondered therefore that perhaps adharma, not being dharma, would be egalitarian by nature.

The Vedaparaga said “I had similar problems as you have. Long time ago in answer to my question, my Guru said that nobody would find Dharma and Adharma saying to the ones they meet, supposing they did meet, 'We are here in your midst. Neither do devas, gandharvas (male consorts of the non-earthly nymphs) nor the ancestors announce- this is dharma, that is adharma'-. I hope my Magadhi translation is adequate. In case it isn't, the Sanskrit version is as follows:

Na dharmau adharmau charata aavam sva iti; na deva gandharva na pitara iti aachaksate – yam dharma, yam adharma iti.”

Siddhartha looked puzzled. He asked, “Are you saying that we shall never know what is dharma or what is adharma?”

“No,” replied the Vedaparaga.“Just consider human societies for the moment. Dharma has archetypes which constitute the original ideal models without any flaw and humans should aspire to follow them. This seems, however, beyond the capability of us. Therefore, at times reluctantly, we resort to ectypes which are reproductions or modified versions of the ideal ones. These ectypal models are the prevalent ones in human societies and they are accepted as valid dharmas. From time immemorial humans had to confront apad which means being between the rock and the hard place. Apad arises because of human fallibility. All this means that we can only dream of archetypes but we must live with metadharma which is the modified version of the ideal form.

I must emphasise that societal dharmas have to be tailored to the contemporary circumstances. You will find, whether you live in Brahmavarta, Brhmarshi desh, Aryavarta or Dakshin desh, there will be varying laws among different groups of people. It could be different for the same group of people living apart at different places or times in their lives.

To summarise, lawmakers have designed this descriptive dharma which states that humans should, not must, be pragmatic, live in a harmonious non-violent manner with nature and with one another. However, there is also this prescriptive dharma which says that it is allowed, for example, to cut down trees for building houses, chariots or bullock-carts and firewood. The strict emphasis always of course is on non-wastefulness.”

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)