ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Cyberbullying Victim in Ireland: Lara Burns' Story

Updated on May 16, 2019

Lara Burns from Ireland

Tribute Video

Ciara Puglsey's Father Urges Politicians to Take Action

In Kilcock in Co. Kildare in the UK, 12-year-old Lara Burns was found dead from an apparent suicide November 2012. The police are investigating cyberbullying as the cause of the girls suicide.

“The family is struggling to come to terms with the devastating tragedy" stated a friend of the family.

Local priest Fr PJ Byrne said: “The community is in shock and are trying to come to terms with such deeply sad and emotional events.”

Lara was Lara had issue with self-harm behavior leading up to the tragedy. The young girl was receiving help from "Peita House" for self harm and suicide prevention.

“This is a hugely upsetting and distressing time for Lara’s family and they are very grateful to all her friends and to the Pieta House group for all their support,” he said.

“There are issues far more complex than may have initially been made out and Lara’s family just need time to grieve and come to terms with their loss now.”

Although there were claims of cyberbullying being the cause of the suicide, no official complaints were immediately filed with the Irish law enforcement. The Irish police are investigating the claims of cyberbullying and her parents really don't know why their daughter took her own life.

A tribute/memorial Facebook page was set up in memory of the young pre-teen.

The local school where Lara had only been for three months, has implemented a critical incident management program in order to help their students cope with the death of their classmate.

Lara was a huge fan of the band, Black Veil Brides. The band played tribute to the girl on the social networking site, Twitter. Fans of the band had let the band know of the girl's death.

Lara Burns was the third death in recent months from cyberbullying in Ireland. In September the victim was Ciara Pugley and in October the victim was Erin Gallaghar.

After Lara burns death, Ciara Pugley's father pleaded with Irish policymakers and politicians to take "urgent action".

“It is devastating to learn that another young girl has taken her own life,” he said.

"My heart goes out to the Burns family because I know what they are going through."

Cops fear that "trolls" contributed to Lara's death. The Justice Minister is backing the new Irish Delete Cyberbullying Campaign. The Office of Internet Safety is his jurisdiction and has informed parents that his office has an internet safety guide available for them.

“It is also very important to make it known that cyber bullying could result in very serious criminal charges being brought against those involved.”

The First Two Victims


Ciara Pugsley and Erin Gallager

There were two girls that took their own lives as well previous to Lara but eerily close together and all linked to being bullied on

Ciara Puglsey was the first victim and committed suicide in September 2012 Ciara was only 15-years-old and from Dromahair, Co Leitrim, Ireland. She killed herself after being slammed with hate messages on

In October, Erin Gallagher, a 13-year-old teenager in Ballybofey, Co Donegal Ireland, also took her own life after telling her online bullies not 24 hours before that she was going to kill herself if they didn't leave her alone. Irish police investigated the girl's death. Erin was also using the popular website The day before she died, she responded to a comment that insinuates that Erin had been the victim or would be one of a physical attack where she would/did get her hair pulled. She responded with,

"Do u think ur funny bulling me over yeah u prob think it was funny when a f**in put a rope round my neck cause of yous, yous are that sad!

In response to the tragedy when Mark Terebin was approached for comment, here was his very un-intelligent and arrogant answer,

"We do understand the gravity of the situation and I sympathise with Ciara Pugsley's family.

"Of course there is a problem with cyber bullying in social media.

"But, as far as we can see, we only have this situation in Ireland and the UK most of all, trust me.

"There are no complaints regarding cyber bullying from parents, children or other sources in other countries.

"It seems like children are more cruel in these countries (Ireland and the UK)."

Pieta House

Pieta House is a non-profit organization located in Dublin Ireland. It provides specialized treatment for suicidal prevention. They do not charge for their services. They are able to provide free services due to the 80% of funding comiing from donations and fund-raising events.

The organization was founded in 2006 and was the first one in Ireland to provide these kind of specialized services. It encourages collaboration efforts with doctors and hospitals. It has already served approximately 4,000 people and has opened up an outreach center in Limerick, Ireland and Balleyfermont. It has grown to 40 professionals and administrative staff since opening its doors.

Anyone can make a referral for someone to be seen at Pieta House, so you don't need a doctor's referral nor do you need to already have a psychiatrist that is linked to the organization. You can refer yourself if so needed. The waiting list isn't very long, the organization rarely has someone wait for more than one week to be seen. They always have two emergency slots available.

Treatment at Pieta House is entirely at the pace of the patient and do not prescribe medication but they will work with your family and doctor if its needed or recommended. All sessions are on a one-to-one basis. It is also preferred and recommended that family be assigned a support therapist and be educated on what is going on with the individual in therapy.

Contact Information:

Pieta House Lucan, County Dublin,
Where we are:
Pieta House, Lucan Road, Lucan, Co. Dublin.

Call us:
(01) 601 0000


Opening hours in Pieta House Lucan

Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday 9am-8pm

Friday 9am-5pm

Saturday and Sunday* 10am-2pm

Pieta House Locations

Pieta House, Lucan Road, Lucan, Co. Dublin.:
Lucan Rd, Lucan, Co. Dublin, Ireland

get directions

Call us: (01) 601 0000 Email: Opening hours in Pieta House Lucan Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday 9am-8pm Friday 9am-5pm Saturd

47 Mellowes Court, Finglas, Dublin 11:
47 Mellowes Ave, Finglas West, Dublin 11, Co. Dublin, Ireland

get directions

Call us: (01) 864 8899 Email: Opening hours in Pieta Finglas Tuesday - 10am to 3pm Thursday - 5.00pm to 9.00pm

Ballyfermot Road, Ballyfermot, Dublin 10:
Ballyfermot Rd, Dublin 10, Co. Dublin, Ireland

get directions

Call us: 01 6200020 Mobile: 0876903236 Email: Opening hours in Pieta Ballyfermot Open: 10-5pm Monday - Friday

Pieta Mid-West, Ardaulin, Mungret, Co. Limerick:
Mungret, Co. Limerick, Ireland

get directions

Call us: + 353 (061) 484444 + 353 (061) 484646 Email: Opening hours in Pieta Mid-West 9am-5pm Monday - Friday

Founders of

Oskars Liepiņš, Marks Terebins, Iļja Terebins, Valērijs Vešņakovs un Klāvs Sinka.
Oskars Liepiņš, Marks Terebins, Iļja Terebins, Valērijs Vešņakovs un Klāvs Sinka. | Source

Dislike Don't Add App to Your Facebook

Fitgerald looking for answer over role in suicides
Fitgerald looking for answer over role in suicides | Source

School Campaigns Against

What Does Say Aboug Cyberbulling on their site?

The social networking site that is linked to the cyberbullying that caused three teenage girls to take their own life in Ireland, during the last three months, is The co-founder of the website was contacted and denied.that social networking cyberbullying is on the rise. He was asked about the girls that committed suicide and he stated that his website is not the issue. He further commented,

"Mass media is knocking on wrong door. It is necessary to go deeper and to find a root of a problem. Its not about the site, the problem is about education, about moral values that were devalued [sic] lately."

The owner of was also contacted and asked to describe the website. He stated,

“just a tool which helps people to communicate with each other, same as any other social network, same as phone, same as piece of paper and pen”.

The issue of how much responsibility the social networking sites have in what goes on on these pages is an issue that many are dealing with. Facebook has the United States grasping at the right to "free speech" and if that consitutes "hate speech" or what "trolls" have been doing on dead girls websites and the awful images and comments that are taking place. The website Facebook, claims to have no tolerance for cyberbullying but yet has refused to take down imagews or shut down pages or profiles that clearly are doing just that. So what does Ireland's social site think when we talk of the issue of responsibility? The owner made a clear statement to what he thinks;

Don’t blame a tool, but try to make changes… start with yourself… be more polite, more kind, more tolerant of others… cultivate these values in families, in schools.Suicide is not something to encourage via mass media. The more you promote suicide, the more it happen.”

But what does he mean when he says "promote suicide"? Is he talking about the bullies that encourage and taunt another peer into killing themselves? Or is he talking about the media reporting the deaths? Or the advocates pushing for stricter guidelines and laws? Who is "promoting suicide"?

"Do you think mass media cares? They want scandals, they want sensations and finally they want money. Sorry, but we do not want to participate in it. What happened is a true tragedy and we give our deepest condolences to the victim’s family and relatives."

The five founders of are:

  1. Mark Terebin

  2. Oskars Liepins

  3. Ilja Terebin

  4. Klavs Sinka

  5. Valerijs Vesnakovs

None of the founders of the website will take any responsibility for the websites being a factor in the child's death. They actually have adamantly refused to have any responsibility. The co-founder Klavs Sinka gave his own statement in regards to the situation:

“We created as an attractive way for people to communicate with each other. For several years, millions of people all around the world have happily used our product. From the beginning, we have tried to create tools with which to fight and prevent publishing of unwanted content on However, despite all our efforts, we cannot completely prevent users from having a negative psychological impact on one another.”

I am supposing his goal was to pacify the interested parties.

Sinka instead pushs the heat onto parents suggesting "parents keep a better eye on their children." He also is blaming the increase of suicides on the media publicizing the deaths of these kids. Stating its like the "Werther Syndrom" (after a publication a spat of suicides happened.) I find this a bit shameful on their part because these kids have been proven over investigations to have had serious bullying affecting their lives and most had previously mental health issues. This isn't a "glorified" action where they want to go down in their "fifteen minutes of fame" for goodness sake.

Anyway, the actions of the founders that run this website haven't had any action that portrays any "good intentions" as they have left two of the three victims of the last three months profiles active. The anonymous forum blatantly encourages bullying as one of the video's I included will depict.

Mark Terebin released a statement to the Irish television media that,

“There are no complaints regarding cyber-bulling from parents, children, or other sources in other countries,”

Apparently he doesn't look online at all because his online site has received a multitude of complaints across Europe and North America. Teenagers in Ireland have been requesting for the website to be taken down following the death of the three girls or users to delete their profiles out of respect for the victims.

In early November, prior to Lara Burn's death, the Minister had already declared that they were going to demand a safety probe into the Lavatia owned website. The Minister had already met with Facebook and had this to say:

“Obviously I’m very worried because if you have a site that doesn’t have the kind of safeguards, for example, that Facebook has, and doesn’t block and where you don’t have a name policy, I’m obviously very concerned about it.”

Expanding Company While Teens Are Dying

Posted this image and statement as to the deaths of the girls due to this website and bullying
Posted this image and statement as to the deaths of the girls due to this website and bullying | Source

Reality Check: Terebin You Are a Bully Too

Co-founder of; Mark Terebin

Co-Founder Mark Terebin releases statement, "Don't blame a tool, make changes."
Co-Founder Mark Terebin releases statement, "Don't blame a tool, make changes." | Source

Schools in Ireland Campaign to Ban


What is

I have a response to the statement from the co-founder and founder in regards to the media, YES the population as a majority DOES care. We need to be made aware of each tragic case, know the details, get to know what personal experiences each family is going through and hear how they could have prevented it, what they could have done different. Don't you think that there are many parents out there watching their teenager going through the same experience and not knowing what to do to help? Don't you think that ;by being made aware of these stories and deaths that parents will be able to learn how to better monitor and protect their children? Are you aware Mr. founder, that many laws and policies in the United States have actually come OUT of these tragedies and that the public has started awareness groups that aim to help the actual bullied individuals? I have never been to Ireland, and I have always had that country on my top five list to travel too, so I have nothing against Ireland...BUT I don't know about Ireland however here in the U.S, we even learn from YOUR tragedies. We have bonded together in all different places in our nation to fix what is going on today with cyberspace. Mr. founder, you are mistaken when you think or state that cyberbullying isn't on the rise because of social networking cites. It definitely is because bullying statistics show this fact. Bullying is drastically rising at a rate increasing as we speak and so much higher than fifteen years ago when I was a young teenager. One thing I will state about Facebook and Myspace, Facebook has spoken to the media, has responded and deleted some content reported. Myspace even went to court and tried to find Megan Meirs neighbor (who created a fake profile to bully the girl and was a grown adult) guilty of some crime just so that she wouldn't get away with what she did. Unfortunately it was overturned but Myspace cooperated and they tried. Your website should be shut down just for failure to help spread the facts and not try to save the integrity of your site.

I decided to look into the social networking site that was the venue for the girls bullies.

  • is an ask and answer website. It is extremely easy to sign up and when you activate an account you are immediately give five questions to answer. There is basic information and a bio to fill out and you can upload your picture.

  • When you click on the questions to answer, they give you two options. You can answer the question by typing an answer or you can leave a video answer.

  • My website profile name is: CuriousGeorge1979 feel free to visit it and ask questions as I intend to eventually have it all about bullying.

  • The terms state you must be 13-years-old to be a user (well Lara was 12).

  • You are responsible for the data you submit and the content of your profile, you must provide a real name and valid email address upon signup, you are also responsible for any and all activity that happens on your account and under your password, if you suspect unauthorized use than you are too immediately report it to the staff and agree to immediately change your password, you consent to the knowledge that you may encounter inappropriate,obscene, vulgar and the like in material, you acknowledge that allows anonymous posts and DOES NOT MONITOR THEM, you are agreeing to use the website AT YOUR OWN RISK and that the website is NOT LIABLE TO YOU,

  • According to the terms of the site you are NOT ALLOWED TO: send pornography, offensive/harassing/libelous/hate speech/racist/illegal content, you can't misrepresent yourself, you can't transmit directions or instructions for illegal activity, no junk mail or spamming, can't harvest a user's information without their knowledge, can't transmit harassing material, you can't interfere with another's enjoyment of using the site.

All of this seems to me, that they should have taken action against the girl's bullies online as they were in violation of the terms of use.

In the privacy options it does give you an option to allow or disallow anonymous questions. You can click an option not to allow your answers to appear on "stream" and you also have an option to blacklist users.

I could not find a page for Lara Burns, however I did for a friend of hers who had been asked for her information for her page and she wouldn't give it out because she didn't know the person so I do see that the kids were taught what not to do online. The website has the safeguards and terms in place yet they refused to do anything about it.

To give the website some credit, they do have a guide to parents that explains the ins and outs of the website and the link is available under the logo to the left.

I looked at the guide and it gives further information that isn't available when you are using the site, or isn't very visible. It turns out that if you link your accounts, like with your facebook, everything on the stream is available on your facebook feed. So, if there is obscene and vulgar activity on the stream, that is visible on the kids facebook wall as well.

You can also be linked to through your Facebook by using the app that is available. It the teenager uses the app they have an option to click if the site is allowed to "post on their behalf", so the content isn't necessarily even known to the user of what is being automatically posted on the Facebook feed. In my view, its handy in the sense that parents who are smart and are friends on their child's facebook and they monitor the activity, than they will always know what is going on with the child's other sites. is in a lesser degree, also linked to Twitter. The user can only do this by signing in by using the "sign in with Twitter" option. Once linked to twitter the activity is viewable by anyone that searches

There doesn't seem to be any formal form of reporting function on this website, not like what we can see Facebook has done. However, if the app is linked to Facebook, a user can report the app to facebook. It seems that the only "reporting" function would be the block option.

The founders actually ripped off the idea from Formspring and claim to have made their site "better". If you can call being able to anonymously harass someone better. The website boasts over 21 million users. They are building a new office in 'Riga' and looking for new employees with an aim to reaching out to the international audience. The site is available in 31 different languages as well. Nearly HALF of the users are UNDER THE AGE OF EIGHTEEN AND ONLY 31 PERCENT ARE BETWEEN 18-25. (Guess my new profile is going to stand out...maybe I will be bullied so I can see what goes on there.)


Ireland's Cyberbullying Is on Rise

The claim from the co-founder that cyberbullying isn't on the rise nor linked to their website is not accurate. First the video above that was aired on BBC news links the site to high rates of bullying and how the site is working to enable the bullying. Also, there was a recent study done (NUI Maynooth Study) and found that 17% of teenagers in Ireland are bullied and 1 in 10 admitted that they were a bully themselves. 1/4 of the victims did not confide in anyone that they were being bullied or sought help in dealing with the situation.

This study also found that teenagers between the ages of 12 and 18 who were cyberbullied had the bullying last on average, 2-3 weeks at a time. However, it has been noted that it can go on for several years. 30% of younger teenagers were more likely to be bullied than 10% of the older teenagers, the study found.

Not only did they find that 17% were victims of cyberbullying but 21% of Irish teens were victims of regular school bullying.

The numbers could even be higher.

The study was published after the three teen suicides in Ireland the past three months, the last being Lara Burns. The study is published in the Irish Journal of Education.

The four categories of cyberbullying that were studied were:

  • text messaging

  • picture or video clips

  • phone calls

  • emails

The teenagers that the study was concentrating on stated that they most feared the picture and video clips and that adults were less likely to notice that someone was being cyberbullied.

The research showed that the most common perpetrator was one female, and sometimes a small group of females. Often they were in the same class year but in physically different classes. It did not find a correlation between cyberbullying and family relationships or circumstances.

What is important to note in the findings and statistics is that this study didn't focus on websites, instant messaging, or social networking sites. So the number is probably quite a bit higher and would probably match the United States's rates of cyberbullying and show a drastic increase from just a decade ago.


Submit a Comment
  • abbykorinnelee profile imageAUTHOR

    Abigayle Korinne 

    6 years ago from Plymouth WI

    Thank you:) courts tomorrow

  • Caramel28 profile image

    Carla Wallace 

    6 years ago from Waldorf

    I know you don't , You are a very true and kind person of what I have read so far. We have more thing in common then you may know. Good luck in Court again!

  • abbykorinnelee profile imageAUTHOR

    Abigayle Korinne 

    6 years ago from Plymouth WI

    I have nothing against them, I grew up with them and am grateful they were accepting of my son:)

  • Caramel28 profile image

    Carla Wallace 

    6 years ago from Waldorf

    Well I do support what you are doing. Just to let you know having black friends are not bad. They are probably the best people you will ever meet. I am black and I love all shades of people because people are made the same way. I am sorry for your son and I wish you all the luck in the world in court.

  • miscellanea profile image

    Tarik Aarbaoui 

    6 years ago from Morocco

    thanks for sharing :)

  • abbykorinnelee profile imageAUTHOR

    Abigayle Korinne 

    6 years ago from Plymouth WI

    Thank you for your wonderful comments:) Caramel28 and ccurry, I have a son that has been bullied since he was in the first grade. He is not 13 and he was physically attacked, busted his face open because he refused to leave a football field after school when they bullied him too and he chased to kid down and hit him back and got a disorderly conduct ticket for defending himself, we have court Thursday and I am entering a not guilty plea because right after that the kids friends started text bullying. I too stepped in and stopped it, school sees me coming and opens the door now for me and takes me right in so we can document everything. The police department hasn't yet been much help except to treat my son like the problem because he is the new kid in school. Moved him here from California because he was jumped twice and beat up at school for being white and mexican and by BOTH races. He had to hang out with the black kids because they were the only ones to accept him. I am tired of it and I watched him sink to clinical depression and talk of suicide. I had already been researching and writing on the issue for awhile and panicked. He is even in therapy but it seems websites like don't understand or want to see that they have a part in preventing this that its not the media attention its what cyberbullying does to kids. It is becoming a world wide problem just as Autism is a world wide problem and everyone is so concerned all the time about our economy and our unemployment they haven't stopped to see how big of an issue this really is.

    I think you for the support from the bottom of my heart and ccurry if you have the names of the victims I would be glad to write about their stories as well. I want to highlight every single victim and their story because every single one has brought up issues I didn't even know about.

    Meghan Meirs and Myspace: adults making fake profiles

    Amanda Todd: cyberstalking from sexual predators through blog tv using blackmail to harass her to death

    Lara Burns: and their lack of accepting any part of the problem

    Jeffrey Fehr's and Asher Brown: LGBT bullying

    Kristina Calco: school-yard bullying

    Phoebe Prince: experienced every form of bullying over dating the wrong boy

    The whole thing is complicated and now I will be finishing a hub about Facebook (who has done a great job stepping up to help authorities in the new issue I ran across last night) used for human sex trafficking. Happened in Indonesia with 29 girls. Led me to how they have used social media to sex traffick and force US girls into domestic prostitution all over the nation. Sick

  • Caramel28 profile image

    Carla Wallace 

    6 years ago from Waldorf

    I love and support of what you are doing. My son get bullied all the time.

  • ccurry profile image

    Carolyn Curry 

    6 years ago from US

    Wow so amazing, It saddens my soul. In the United States to this seams to be an epidemic I hate it. My daughter was too bullied. The schools can only do so much. Three children in my area this year have committed suicide . cyber bulling is a big thing my daughter was on facebook when one of the girls started messaging her and her friends spreading rumor that my daughter had said awful things about them and the same to her. I watched her heart break right there. However I did get involved right then and contacted school officials printed off messages.... things are better now.

  • always exploring profile image

    Ruby Jean Richert 

    6 years ago from Southern Illinois

    This is such a sad situation. Teens are very vulnerable to unkind words or mocking. Thank you for writing about this, more people should become aware of this behavior and stopped before it becomes rampant across the world. Thanks for sharing..

  • abbykorinnelee profile imageAUTHOR

    Abigayle Korinne 

    6 years ago from Plymouth WI

    Its an important issue and each story has led me to a different aspect we must think about as a society.

  • grand old lady profile image

    Mona Sabalones Gonzalez 

    6 years ago from Philippines

    Cyberbullying happens everywhere, including in the Philippines. I guess it's easier because you can bully someone without saying who you are. It's scarier for the victim and more cowardly on the part of the bully. Very nice, comprehensive hub about a very relevant issue. Thank you so much.

  • abbykorinnelee profile imageAUTHOR

    Abigayle Korinne 

    6 years ago from Plymouth WI

    Thank you, I find it's a very important issue just bullying in itself. But each story has led me into other aspects of it we wouldn't think about normally.

  • ienjoythis profile image

    M Carnahan 

    6 years ago from Nevada

    Cheers to you for writing about this and spreading the word. Bullying, of any kind, needs to be stopped. It can directly and indirectly shatter lives.

  • profile image


    6 years ago

    So, so sad. But, very informative hub. This has to be stopped!


This website uses cookies

As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

Show Details
HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)