ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

What did Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela do to become the genius of a country and an icon for the world

Updated on October 30, 2014
A huge statue of Mandela has been erected in the gardens of the Union Buildings in Pretoria
A huge statue of Mandela has been erected in the gardens of the Union Buildings in Pretoria
This article in the Johannesburg Star of 23 April 1980 shows how Mandela, in his invisibility, still influenced South African political discourse
This article in the Johannesburg Star of 23 April 1980 shows how Mandela, in his invisibility, still influenced South African political discourse

Introduction - the invisible symbol

Asimbonanga (We haven't seen him)
Asimbonang 'uMandela thina (We haven't seen Mandela)

  • from "Asimbonanga" by Johnny Clegg

Back in the mid-1980s when Johnny Clegg wrote these poignant words few people indeed had seen the man who was already the invisible symbol of a people's struggle for freedom.

In the midst of the darkest days of apartheid, when the mostly white troops of the South African army were permanent features in the black townships outside the major cities of South Africa, when black anger was palpable in the streets and the oppressive machinery was working with frightening and arbitrary efficiency, one man whose voice had not been heard publicly in almost three decades, the lineaments of whose face were unknown to most, and whose image and words were banned, was the focus of hope for millions.

It is difficult now, but important, to remember those times when fear was such a dominant feeling all through society, when one did not know for sure who was friend and who was foe, one did not know how much of oneself to reveal to anyone else, when people disappeared in the night and one did not know whether they had gone into exile via the underground railway or had been taken by the secret police, and one was afraid to ask.

In those days Robben Island was a darkly forbidding place of mystery and loathing, visible across the beautiful waters of Table Bay. Writing in an article published Drum magazine in May 1980 but written two years before, Mandela's daughter Zinzi (17 years old when she wrote it) captured some of the pain of the years of Mandela's incarceration there and its effect on his family. When she and her older sister Zeni arrived in the visiting room, she wrote: "My father seemed to go numb with disbelief and happiness at the sight before him (the two sisters had brought Zeni's daughter Zaziwe with them, so he was seeing his grandchild for the first time). Nobody spoke for the first few minutes; it was just a matter of kissing glass panels, fighting back tears and tasting happiness."

Johnny Clegg and Mandela sing "Asimbonanga"

A Poem by Zinzi Mandela, written when she was 12

The van pulls away

Mother watches bravely enough

I as a child do

not understand

but now I do

my heart aches

how I long to see my father

at least to hold his hand

and comfort him

or at least to tell him

he'll be back some day.

The Robben Island ordeal

Oh the sea is cold and the sky is grey
Look across the island into the bay
We are all islands 'till comes the day
We cross the burning water - from "Asimbonanga" by Johnny Clegg

Later the same article she wrote: "I am not allowed to say what Tata (meaning father) told me - not even the nice things - because he is banned and to quote him is against the law."

Since Mandela's then-wife Winnie Madikizela-Mandela was at the time also banned and banished to the little town of Brandfort near Bloemfontein in the Free State she had to go through incredible difficulties even to visit her husband, who by 1982 had been moved to Pollsmoor Prison outside Cape Town. Newspaper editor Allistar Sparks was able to accompany her on one visit and describes, in the Sowetan newspaper of 6 May 1982, the complicated process: "Her instructions were: don't leave home before 5pm on Friday, April 23. Report to the police station before leaving Brandfort. Drive by the shortest route to Bloemfontein Airport. Take flight SA 332 to Cape Town. Do not leave the airport while waiting for the flight. On arrival in Cape Town drive by the shortest route to the main police station and report,  then by the shortest route to the home of a friend whose name she provided.

"She could not get out of the car on route, or step outside the Cape Town friend's house except to go to Pollsmoor at a specified time on Saturday and again on Sunday - again by the shortest route."

Winnie Madikizela-Mandela's trip had on this occasion been financed by an English widow who was touched by the plight of the Mandelas who had been together for only about four months in their then 25 years of marriage.

Sparks concluded his article on thisexperience: "At Pollsmoor, Mrs Mandela saw her husband through a glass partition with a two-way microphone. He asked that I be brought to the door so he could wave his thanks to Winnie's English benefactor. This was refused."

In a comment in the Sowetan newspaper of14 October 1982 the editor wrote: "The family has been torn apart because man and wife have dared to challenge the infallibility of this Government."

Zinzi Mandela on the cover of Drum magazine, May 1980
Zinzi Mandela on the cover of Drum magazine, May 1980

The "Release Mandela Campaign" and freedom at last!

Bring back Nelson Mandela

Bring him back home to Soweto

  • from Hugh Masekela's song "Bring Back Nelson Mandela"

In April 1980 Archibishop Emeritus Desmond Mpilo Tutu, then Bishop, while General Secretary of the South African Council of Churches (SACC), made a remarkably prescient speech to students at the University of Natal in Durban, almost exactly 10 years before Mandela was actually released, in which he predicted that South Africa would have a black Prime Minister in five to ten years: "What the white community still has in its power to do is to decide whether that Prime Minister is going to end up there through a process of reasoned negotiation and discussion at a conference table or whether he will have to do so after bitter fighting and bloodshed.

"I think we have a very good chance of pulling off the first alternative. And we need Nelson Mandela because he is almost certainly going to be that first black Prime Minister.

"He represents all our genuine leaders, in prison and exile.

"So to call for his release is really to say, please let us sit down, black and white, and work out our common future, so that we can move into this new South Africa which will be filled with justice, peace, love, righteousness, compassion and caring."

And in February 1990 South Africa and the world watched in wonder, joy and some trepidation, as Nelson Mandela walked out of prison, hand-in-hand with Winnie, with fist raised high in the ANC salute.

That day my family and I sat glued to the television as we watched history being made, as we watched the first glimmerings of hope for a new country coming out of that prison, and we saw for the first time that face which would, in the months and years ahead, become so familiar, and so beloved, improbably as it must have seemed at the time, by all South Africans, black and white.

Hugh Masekela sings "Bring back Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela casts his first vote in a general election. Photo by Paul Weinberg
Nelson Mandela casts his first vote in a general election. Photo by Paul Weinberg

Elections at last - an end to waiting

What followed was the painstaking, sometimes frustrating, negotiation process of the Congress for a Democratic South Africa (Codesa) which went on, in fits and starts, until the Interim Constitution was agreed and elections could be held. These elections took place on 27 April 1994, now South Africa's National Day.

Mandela was a key in the negotiations and in the elections. His moral courage and deep compassion for people held the country together through some very rough times, when our emotions see-sawed wildly between euphoria and despair.

One of the most traumatic events of the pre-election period was the assassination of South African Communist Party leader Chris Hani on 10 April 1993 by right-wing Polish immigrant Janusz Walus and co-conspirator Clive Derby-Lewis, a South African Conservative Party Member of Parliament.

At the time of Hani's assassination, which severely threatened the on-going negotiations and the fragile peace of the country, Mandela said in a broadcast speech: "Tonight I am reaching out to every single South African, black and white, from the very depths of my being. A white man, full of prejudice and hate, came to our country and committed a deed so foul that our whole nation now teeters on the brink of disaster. A white woman, of Afrikaner origin, risked her life so that we may know, and bring to justice, this assassin. The cold-blooded murder of Chris Hani has sent shock waves throughout the country and the world. ... Now is the time for all South Africans to stand together against those who, from any quarter, wish to destroy what Chris Hani gave his life for – the freedom of all of us."

The elections themselves were an incredible achievement given the short time available to organise and run them. The Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) was set up in mid-December 1993 with a mandate to run the elections by 27 April, a date set by the Codesa negotiators. A very tall order, considering that many millions of South Africans had never in their lives voted, there was no voters roll, no-one in South Africa had any experience of running so large an election, and violence and intimidation were still rife in large parts of the country.

But for all the difficulties Mandela was able, for the first time in his life, to cast his vote in a general election, along with millions of his fellow-citizens.

Paul Bell, the IEC's Director of Communications, wrote of the elections, "there would never be anything like it again. No mission quite so soaring, nor worthy, nor consuming, nor exhilarating."

Heady days indeed, and over them all the towering figure of Mandela stood as the symbol, the hope of democracy and the triumph of the people over long years of oppression and hardship. Not that these would disappear overnight, but that at least the reconciliation could begin, the putting together of a country that had been ripped apart, the finding of bridges between people who had previously thought of themselves as totally alien to each other.

Voters queue to vote in Soweto. Photo by Paul Weinberg
Voters queue to vote in Soweto. Photo by Paul Weinberg

First Citizen of South Africa to citizen of the world

After the elections, which the ANC, predictably, won by a landslide, Mandela really began to show his stature and skills as a leader and reconciler. He seemed to be all over the place! He was untiring in his efforts to bring peace and reconciliation to a country that had deep, deep wounds.

The tone was set when he addressed the crowds on the Grand Parade in Cape Town after his formal election by Parliament as the President: "We place our vision of a new constitutional order for South Africa on the table not as conquerors, prescribing to the conquered. We speak as fellow citizens to heal the wounds of the past with the intent of constructing a new order based on justice for all."

One memorable day, in the midst of all the busyness of trying to stitch a country back together and make the democratic process work again, Mandela typically made two symbolic visits, which were genuine expressions of his humanity. A black family had been traumatised by the shooting to death of one of their children by a white farmer, who claimed that the child had been trespassing on his land. Mandela came to comfort the family in their grief.

On the same day a young white child, dying of leukaemia, was visited by Mandela, who told the child how much he cared for children, and how he felt for the family and their suffering.

It was a Mandela magic moment, and he continued to make Mandela magic, time and time again.

Who could forget the sight of Mandela, dressed in a Springbok rugby jersey, showing his evident delight in the victory of the Springboks in the 1995 Rugby World Cup? It was an incredible moment for the new South Africa, as rugby was seen as the Afrikaners' national sport, a symbol of the old South Africa, and here was Mandela, making it a new South Africa thing. Unforgettable. Magic. Mandela magic.

In 1999 Mandela signed into law the final constitution of South Africa, which incorporates a Bill of Human Rights.

And so as South Africa faces its third general election since the coming of democracy, and the fifteenth anniversary of its freedom, Mandela is in his twilight years, comforted by his loving third wife, Graca Machel, and surrounded by the rolling hills of his Transkei home in Qunu, near Mthatha, basking in the accolades from people all over the world, including the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize. He was the third black South African to be so honoured - Chief Albert Lutuli was the first and Archbishop Emeritus Tutu the second.

Whatever problems South Africa faces, whatever the feelings of insecurity that come with a change in political leadership, the legacy of Mandela is captured in the closing words of his inaugural speech and to a very considerable degree due to his example and leadership:

"Let each know that for each the body, the mind and the soul have been freed to fulfill themselves.

"Never, never and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another and suffer the indignity of being the skunk of the world.

"Let freedom reign.

"The sun shall never set on so glorious a human achievement!

"God bless Africa! "

To which I can only say, "Amen!"

Copyright Notice

The text on this page, unless otherwise indicated, is by Tony McGregor who hereby asserts his copyright on the material. Should you wish to use any of the text feel free to do so with proper attribution and, if possible, a link back to this page. Thank you.

© Tony McGregor 2009


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • profile image


      7 years ago

      There is no point arguing that Nelson Mandela is one of the grteeast leaders the African continent has produced in history. Here are some of Nelson Mandela's best quotes:“I am fundamentally an optimist. Whether that comes from nature or nurture, I cannot say. Part of being optimistic is keeping one's head pointed toward the sun, one's feet moving forward. There were many dark moments when my faith in humanity was sorely tested, but I would not and could not give myself up to despair. That way lays defeat and death”. I dream of the realization of the unity of Africa, whereby its leaders combine in their efforts to solve the problems of this continent. I dream of our vast deserts, of our forests, of all our great wildernesses .“No one is born hating another person because of the color of his skin, or his background, or his religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite.”“I have walked that long road to freedom. I have tried not to falter; I have made missteps along the way. But I have discovered the secret that after climbing a great hill, one only finds that there are many more hills to climb. I have taken a moment here to rest, to steal a view of the glorious vista that surrounds me, to look back on the distance I have come. But I can only rest for a moment, for with freedom come responsibilities, and I dare not linger, for my long walk is not ended.” “One of the things I learned when I was negotiating was that until I changed myself, I could not change others.” “Overcoming poverty is not a task of charity, it is an act of justice. Like Slavery and Apartheid, poverty is not natural. It is man-made and it can be overcome and eradicated by the actions of human beings. Sometimes it falls on a generation to be great. YOU can be that great generation. Let your greatness blossom.” +4Was this answer helpful?

    • tonymac04 profile imageAUTHOR

      Tony McGregor 

      8 years ago from South Africa

      @Truth be told - I am suspicious of anonymous comments like your's. If it were the truth why would you want to mask your identity? As for the 20000 murdered in a year I would like to see verification of that figure. Furthermore the apartheid regime was equally corrupt - morally and practically - but was more successful in hiding the corruption.

      I would also rather live in costly and uncomforatble freedom than in cheap and comfortable bondage to an ideology of hate.

      Nevertheless I do not delete your comment - you are entitled to your opinion.

      Love and peace


    • jeanihess profile image


      8 years ago from Cape Town South Africa

      Well yes hey SXP and others such:) I guess that I could hold onto my pain that the KhoiSan was wiped out- that the First Nations of South Africa were sacrificed and that I had to watch people's homes being bulldozed while they themselves were moved to live in matchboxes elsewhere and now as an outcome of that, their descendents live in shacks wherever they can set one up because this country will not catch up with housing for another 40yrs or so. This besides all the other damage that we had to live under and with and their consequences. Still we offered you peace and the hand of friendship and cooperation and got very little goodwill back. Like Tony says, we have to try and go on trying but if you can't then it is good that you find another country where you can be happier and perhaps live in a segregated society:)

    • profile image

      Truth be told 

      9 years ago

      Can someone please explain to me if he was such a great person why:

      a) under his policies the crime rate surged to 20 000 victims murdered a year-steep price to pay for "freedom". One that even if you took all the people killed between 1960-1994 would only amount to a fraction of that. Check the TRC findings if you want.

      b) the former government agreed that he could be released if he denounced violence- something he never did.

      c) Corruption and nepotism was rife under his terms as president, even Tokyo Sexwale was in on the action selling drugs in Johannesburg.

      Whatever he stood for he got caught with his hands in the cookie jar and ended up a hero to some.

      I will give it to him that he helped create a better image of S Africa abroad but try tell all those people that were murdered families that he made a better country.

      In the time it took me to write this 5 more people have been murdered due to the policies he put in place.

      Get a reality check.

      Thank you

    • tonymac04 profile imageAUTHOR

      Tony McGregor 

      9 years ago from South Africa

      Gerry - thanks for stopping by. It is a great quote, isn't it?

      Love and peace


    • sligobay profile image


      9 years ago from east of the equator

      Poverty is not natural. It is man-made. This is a great quote from the last video. Voted up and awesome.

    • profile image

      Ailsa Purdon 

      10 years ago

      Mandela was a great person, but he was only one of a group of people. He was not a communist as Vlad suggests; indeed among many of his peers, he was simply not that politically sophisticated. His peers who also spent 27 years in jail, Govan Mbeki and Walter Sisulu probably provided more intellectual guidance to the struggle. Mandela was the figure head. Sobukwe an even greater intellectual and leader.

      I first travelled to South Africa in 1993 and returned to live in Jo'burg between 1995 and 1999. have been going back regularly since then, the latest a visit for the World Cup. (see my blog Ayoba). When I first went in 1993, there was essentially a civil war in Soweto and the Transkei. THis is no longer the case.

      Pixley Seme, Luthuli, Thambo, Mandela, Sobukwe and other leaders of the struggle never racialised the struggle: it was never a struggle for a black government but one democratically elected. The struggle continues and I would suggest that all South Africans regardless of race participate in the political process. How many white people have joined their local branch of the ANC?

      I wonder what that million people who have left the country bring to their next country. What are they prepared to stand up and fight for if it is not for democracy and equal rights for their fellow citizens.

    • tonymac04 profile imageAUTHOR

      Tony McGregor 

      10 years ago from South Africa

      Tim - thanks for stopping by and making such a thoughtful comment. I appreciate it very much.

      Love and peace


    • Simple Tim profile image

      Simple Tim 

      10 years ago

      Excellent hub Tony on the historic individual of our time. It is his very essence of humilaty that makes his greatness.

      SXP-Racism is the great 'childhood' disease of humanity-not even the goodness of Mandela can banish it! but he does inspire us to be better people. Perhaps our children are the future-if they can be judged on the content of their character and not the color of their skin- then we may just be on a path to a higher human culture.

    • SXP profile image


      11 years ago from South Africa

      All that admiration will bring no peace to the country or prosperity to the future generations. It is sad, but it is reality. Honestly, before my family get atacked, murdered or raped, I'd take apartheid anytime. It is as simple as that and that is why we have more than 1000000 South Africans who already have left the country.

      Sure it is not Mandela's fault what is happening now, but I do hear something from him now: Deafening silence!

    • tonymac04 profile imageAUTHOR

      Tony McGregor 

      11 years ago from South Africa

      No living person has no faults, so yes, SXP, Mandela has faults. The point is that he, with the support of so many of his comrades, insisted, after his release, on reconciliation, on bringing South Africans, of whatever colour or background, together as a united country. This he did in spite of more than 300 years of incremental racism and suppression, including cruelty and violence which made what the ANC did look like a Sunday school picnic, really.

      That the dream is looking a little tatty now is not Mandela's fault. It is the fault of many complex forces, not least of which is the continuing reluctance of whites to accept that the apartheid past is dead and gone and we should look to the future, find each other and carry on. We need to accept that we are all bound up together in this country, no-one can go it alone. As Martin Luther King Jnr said, we can either live together as brothers and sisters or we will die together as fools. I know which of those options I would choose.

      As for the war that you say started the rot, well I think the rot was started long before that by whites who had no generosity of spirit, no feelings for their fellows except hatred and disdain.

      I know that it is hard to forget things, to let go of strongly-held opinions, but that is what makes Mandela so great. He was able to transcend the pettiness, the smallness of spirit for the good of others.

      There have not been many like him in history, and that's why I admire him.

      Love and peace


    • SXP profile image


      11 years ago from South Africa

      Now, 15 years later, it seems that Mandela's dream was actually just a nightmare all the time. Honestly, how did he expect anyreal good to come from something that was inherently evil, like signing off on bombings of civilians?..torture of comrades who disagreed with ANC leader?..I am sorry, but for me, he can never be any hero, he is just the winner of a war that started the real rott in this beautifull country of ours.

    • rosariomontenegro profile image


      11 years ago from NEW YORK

      Dear Tony, thank you for finding my hubs, which allowed me to find this hub.

      If you could look into things I've written before, you would see that what I'm going to say now is the truth of my heart, not a rethorical hubber's salutation.

      Nelson Mandela, as I see it, is a saint. Such sacred, holy man! After wasting away in prison for the whole of his adult life he never had the slightest desire for revenge. When in power he never tried to crush his enemies. Because he didn't have enemies, not in his own eyes, only fellow humans that were the objects of his compassion. I don't have enough words to laud such noble being, and I consider myself honored and happy to be living in this planet while he is living here too.

      Nelson Mandela is my hero and I thank you very much for writing about his incredible trip as a saviour of his country.

    • profile image


      11 years ago

      I always look back to the struggle Mandela had when I was a kid growing up. A great man and one who changed a country, great piece of writing my friend.

    • Vladimir Uhri profile image

      Vladimir Uhri 

      11 years ago from HubPages, FB


      I never enjoy to insult anybody. But I never met Stalin, Lenin, and others personally but I discern who they were. Communists always use gypsies, minorities, black, even Arabs to achieve their goal. 

      Love and blessing to you too.

    • tonymac04 profile imageAUTHOR

      Tony McGregor 

      11 years ago from South Africa

      Francia - thanks for your comments and I wish I could have experienced that concert also.

      ESAHS - thanks for the encouragement, I appreciate it.

      Love and peace


    • profile image


      11 years ago


      "This is a  very heavy subject but my hat goes off to anyone that stands up to what they believe in which includes voices their views and opinions!"

      "Never stop shouting Tony!"

      "Two thumbs up!"

      CEO E.S.A.H.S. Association

    • franciaonline profile image


      11 years ago from Philippines

      Long Live democracy in South Africa! Thanks God for Nelson Mandela!

      I remember in August 1985, while I was in London on an exposure visit to the Filipino Migrant Workers, I was invited to a concert calling for the release of Nelson Mandela. The end of the concert was an electrifying song "Free Nelson Mandela!". It was like we at the concert hall could touch one another's heartbeats as we hoped fiercely for the release of Nelson Mandela.

      This hub is a nourishing food for the spirit. Thanks for including the videos. I enjoyed them all!

    • tonymac04 profile imageAUTHOR

      Tony McGregor 

      11 years ago from South Africa

      Wow Vlad - can't you look past the label and see the person?

      Anyway I'm not at all sure that Mandela is a communist. He is more of an African Nationalist.

      Love and peace


    • Vladimir Uhri profile image

      Vladimir Uhri 

      11 years ago from HubPages, FB

      Tony, I cannot endorse anyone who is the communist.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)