ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Racism Condemned and Criminalized in South Africa

Updated on December 19, 2016
MartieCoetser profile image

Martie Coetser is a freelance writer from South Africa. She has a keen interest in a variety of topics.

Introduction: Racism

According to my dictionary 'racism' is:

  • The prejudice that members of one race are intrinsically superior to members of other races.
  • Discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race.

Comprehension definitions of Racism are to be found all over on the Internet, as it is a social issue that restrains the emotional and physical freedom of millions of people.

In my hub, Another-Perspective-on-Racism, I described racism as a form of emotional fortification. Because racism is all about emotions - and especially fear - and because it is rather a primordial distrust in strangers, surely the advanced human race of today should not be emotionally incarcerated by racism. Thanks to advanced technology, like social media, television, aircraft, people of all races have strictly speaking become one nation, knowing each other and sharing in each other's prosperity and adversity. Yet, many people are not able to realize this. They keep on clinging to their own while hating the rest.

During the past year In South Africa racism and racists incidents were next to the unacceptable doings of politicians and criminals top news.

Racism examined closely

Willem Oosthuizen and Theo Jackson

Two white farmers from the Eastern Cape in South Africa were arrested after they forced a black man, Victor Mlotshwa, in a coffin while threatening to put a snake in the coffin and to set the coffin alight. Apparently they wanted Mlotshwa to accept his lot in a closed coffin without a word of protest. They also addressed Mlotshwa with the forbidden k-word.

In the video of the incident, which happened on August 17th, the victim’s frightful cries arouse overwhelming aversion to racists and bullies.

After being arrested for kidnapping and assault with intent to cause grievous bodily harm, Willem Oosthuizen and Theo Jackson explained in court that they were threatened by Mlotshwa, who had trespassed on their farm to steal copper cables. They wanted to teach Mlotshwa a lesson, they told the magistrate.

According to Mlotshwa, there is a pathway through the farm to the township where he lives. Many of the township’s residents use the pathway.

The magistrate rejected the farmers' application for bail. They will spend Christmas and New Year in jail, as their trial is scheduled for January 25th.


Vanessa Hartley

Vanessa Hartley, a security consultant in the beautiful Hout Bay near Cape Town, ranted on Facebook about the influx of Africans into Hout Bay's adjoining informal settlement, Imizamo Yethu. In her rant she allegedly referred to Africans from other African countries as “stupid animals” who should be tied to a rope, because they illegally tie up seals and feed them at the local harbor. (Being a mid-lander, I don't have a clue what people could gain by tying up seals and feeding them in a harbor. I believe somebody will soon enlightens me.)

The influx of too many people had turned the beautiful Hout Bay in just another crime-affected town in South Africa, complains the residents of Hout Bay. But being white and privileged, living in comfort in the affluent region of Hout Bay, Hartley finds the decline of her beloved town more upsetting than the poverty in Imizamo Yethu, whose black residents increased from 2,000 in 1993 to 18,000 in 2016.

Hartley’s racist attitude is that of many white avowed and closet racists in SA, who are not willing to sacrifice any of the privileges they have obtained as a result of Apartheid, and who want nothing to do with the Africans’ struggle against poverty and inequality.

“Vanessa Hartley’s post has negatively affected genuine attempts by residents in Hout Bay to work together to address the challenge they face as residents within the community,” said Hout Bay Civic Association secretary, Roscoe Jacobs, on Monday, December 5th to TMG Digital from the police station where he lodged a complaint of crimen injuria against Hartley. The ANC of the Western Cape also expressed their intention to open a criminal complaint on Monday.

Hartley issued an apology and an explanation - her phone was left lying around at a bar and someone else wrote the message and the response to the comments.

Dawie Kriel

“Same story every year. Despite the outcry about crackers every year and in spite of the ban on the imports, Zuma still gives the Gupta’s and company license to import that shit by the container load. Profit profit profit… To those idol worshippers and devil disciples who buy them in the name of religion, piss-off back to your dark hole in the backwoods of India you dickhead!! I could strangle you morons with my bare hands and derive great pleasure in watching your face turn blue and your tongue pop out….” Dawie Kriel raged on Facebook at the end of October during the Hindu festival of Diwali.

The DA as well as the ANC in KwaZula-Natal laid charges against Kriel. On November 28thKriel appeared in court and stated his intention to plead guilty. He was given a warning and asked to return to court on January 17, 2017.


Justin van Vuuren

The owner of a gym business in Durban, Justin Van Vuuren, lost a couple of his sponsors, among other Future Life, after he called black people ‘animals’ in a rant on Facebook about the condition of Durban beaches.


Penny Sparrow

In January 2016, retired realtor, Penny Sparrow lamented the condition of a Durban Beach that was overcrowded by black people on New Year’s Day. She posted a rant on Facebook, calling black people ‘monkeys’, and triggered a social media furore. Charges against her were brought by individual members of the ANC and also by her own party, the DA, who summarily suspended her membership.

After pleading guilty to a charge of crimen injuria, Penny was found guilty of hate speech and fined R5,000 by the Scottburgh Magistrate’s Court and R150,000 by the Equality Coart.

New Year's Day on Durban beach

Gareth Cliff

One of the judges on Idols SA, Gareth Cliff, was fired by his employer, M-Net, after he sympathized with Penny Sparrow on Twitter. His post, "People really don't understand free speech at all," was according to him hijacked by an angry twitter-mob. After an urgent application to the High Court in Johannesburg, he was reinstated as an Idols judge.

Dianne Kohler-Barnard

A Member of Parliament for the DA (opposition party), Dianne-Kohler-Barnard, was expelled from her party after sharing on her Facebook page a statement of someone else. "Please come back PW Botha [president during Apartheid] — you were far more honest than any of these [ANC] rogues‚ and you provided a far better service to the public."

Being a member of the DA, whites actually admit that Apartheid was a cruel, racist policy, and they undertake to do everything in their power to efface its tragic results. Obviously, sharing a statement such as the one Dianne has shared, should not be done by a member of the DA.

After appealing her expulsion, Dianne was reinstated in her position, but on conditions that actually made a mockery of her presence in Parliament.

Chris Hart

Standard Bank economist, Chris Hart, was compelled to resign after Standard Bank suspended him for tweeting on January 3, 2016 that black people had a sense of entitlement and hatred towards minorities (whites).


Velaphi Khumalo

Following Penny Sparrow’s post in January on Facebook, Velaphi Khumalo responded in an even more racist manner, threatening to clean South Africa of all white people. He was immediately suspended by his employer, The Gauteng Sports, Arts, Culture and Recreation Department, who described his post on Facebook as "barbaric and racist utterances".

Velaphi was subjected to a disciplinary hearing, where he was charged for misconduct. After pleading guilty and committed himself to corrective measures, including counselling, he was given a final warning by the disciplinary panel and went back to work, tasked to promote sport in his province.

On top of this Velaphi had to face a case of crimen injuria, as 19 complaints were lodged against him. To date the public doesn't know what the ruling of the Equality Court was, as reporters have lost interest.

Matthew Theunissen
Matthew Theunissen | Source

Matthew Theunissen

In May 2016 the Minister of Sports, Fikile Mbalula, unexpectedly forbids national netball, cricket, athletics and rugby associations from bidding for, or hosting any sporting events due to their failure to ‘transform’ according to the country’s population, which is 79.2% Africans, 8.9% Whites, 8.9% Coloureds, 2.5% Indian/Asian, and 0.5% Other.

Matthew Theunissen, a 26-year-old man with a Master degree in Environmental Management, shocked the country by responding with a most offensive rant against SA's government.

His punishment included community service in a poor‚ disadvantaged area for three to six months, anger management therapy‚ anti-racism research, and he may not “publish or communicate any further discriminatory or hurtful language‚ and will refrain from engaging on any social network platform for 12-months while undergoing rehabilitation”.

“This process asks Theunissen to specifically explore‚ reflect and understand what hate speech and racism are‚ why hate speech is destructive to South Africa’s transformation process‚ and how white privilege functions in South African society‚” explained the South African Human Rights Commission.

Shayne Ramsay

In November, Cape Town DA councilor, Shayne Ransay, posted a rant on Facebook about homeless people (mostly blacks), living in the streets of Sea Point. She referred to them as “criminals‚ mentally retarded or social outcasts and those who are genuinely down on their luck”.

She urged people not to throw away ‘perfectly edible’ food, as the homeless people treat rubbish bins like buffet tables. Her intention was to change the bylaws of this posh suburb to make life more difficult for vagrants, and to organize a March against GRIME.

“At this particular point the matter is being investigated by the City, and we are not in the position to make any further comments,” said the Chairperson of the City of Cape Town’s Disciplinary Committee on November 29th. To date we have not heard another word of Shayne.

Vicki Momberg

Another realtor, Vicki Momberg, indulged in racist profanity while refusing the assistance of black police officers after she lost her handbag during a smash-and-grab incident. Without any provocation she expressed intense hatred and disdain for black South Africans, saying they are arrogant, useless and clueless.

Her rant was caught on video and went viral on social media, and when she looked again, she was charged with four counts of crimen injuria.

Momberg’s final appearance in court was scheduled for October 27, 2016. To date I have not heard or read a word about its outcomes – more proof that the media prioritize sensational news.

Andre Slade

In June 2016, the owner of a guest house in Sodwana Bay, Andre Slade, claimed that “God’s word says whites are superior to blacks. Pointing to the top of his partner’s head, he claimed that God had created whites with a "crown" on their heads. He justified his refusal to accommodate black people at his guest house and perpetuated the Apartheid ideology and its dehumanizing effect with several Bible scriptures.

He was compelled to close his guesthouse, not because the Africans in the region threatened to set it alight, but because it came to light that he had obtained the property under false pretenses, and he was operating without a license.

In August his Slovakian partner was arrested reportedly for contravening the Immigration Act, as her visa had expired. She refused bail.

To date the lot of Slade and his partner is unknown, as reporters have lost interest in them.

Mabel Jansen

Mabel Jansen, a High Court judge generalized in a Facebook conversation that "all black men are ra#ists and murderers". In a private message to Gillian Scutte – a white activist and self-confessed hater of whites - Mabel speculated that ra#e was part of black’s culture.

After the media’s outrage about a white waitress who was bullied by a black man, Gillian Scutte published her private conversation with Mabel in an effort to overlay the wrong that was done by the bully. She exposed Mabel as a racist judge who should be removed from the bench.

Mabel, who denied allegations that she was a racists, was granted special leave by the Minister of Justice and Correctional Services, pending the finalization of a complaint against her that was lodged at the Judicial Service Commission by the Gauteng chairperson of Advocates for Transformation‚ Vuyani Ngalwana.

Mabel’s complaint, that she feared for her and her children’s lives since Scutte published their conversation fell on deaf ears. She was compelled to leave the country to await her lot in Europe. In September two gunman broke into her house and demanded court files. They left with items of jewelry after trashing files on her computer.

To date nothing more has been reported about Mabel’s lot.

Julius Malema

The leader of the EFF (2nd largest opposition party), Julius-Malema, seems to be the most outspoken racist in South Africa, although he claimed, in agreement with Andile Mngxitama and some other black leaders, that black people can not be racist.

According to expelled EFF Member of Parliament, and now leader of the ‘Black First Land First’ movement, Andile Mngxitama,

“…. racism describes a process of black people’s subjugation. If you don’t limit this definition then racism becomes everything and everyone can be a victim of racism and black people, as a result, are unable to make claims for reparations for slavery, for colonialism, for apartheid and continuing discrimination of black people…. If racism is everything, if you say white people can become victims of racism, what you have done right there, is to wipe off the historical slate clean of the specialiced, unique ways in which black people have been oppressed over the ages….”

45 cases of black-on-white racism

Then there are forty-five cases of black-on-white racism reported to the Human Rights Commission by the FW de Klerk Foundation on January 15, 2016. The little attention that was given to these complaints may indicate that the SAHRC is applying a policy of Double Standards.

Martie Coetser
Martie Coetser

Opinion of an owfma-sa

People may label me as a ‘snob’, and a ‘criminalist’, hating criminals, but never as a ‘racist’ nurturing the idea that I am part of superior race, or that I may enjoy any privileges because I am white, or that I have the right to be nasty and abusive towards members of other races.

While growing up during the time of Apartheid, indoctrinated with the idea that segregation is ‘God’s will’, I was also taught (and indoctrinated) to love my neighbor as much as I love myself. That Africans were my neighbor was an indisputable fact since I can remember in the house of my parents.

I remember my painful sympathy with poor black children, and my feelings of guilt because I had what they didn’t have – beautiful, undamaged clothes and shoes, a warm bed to sleep in, three meals a day, a grand school to attend, and a grand church, etc. I remember my confusion and inability to understand why God, who stands for love and forgiveness, could be so unfair, demanding segregation and Apartheid.

I remember the day in 1991, when I heard that the ruling organ of my church had admit that they were wrong to believe that segregation and Apartheid was God’s will. I remember my relief because black people were finally declared just as human as white people and my anger because I’d been misled by ministers, teachers, and my parents for thirty five years.

Because I have relatives and acquaintances that are racist, I know the mentality and personality-traits of white racists, and this is where my ‘snobbish nature’ kicks in – I don’t mingle with racists, and if they happen to be in my personal space for one reason or another, I openly disagree with any racist remarks they spew.

While I find white-on-black racism disgusting, unforgivable, and beneath my dignity, I find black-on-white racism manipulative, terrifying, and hate-infusing. By acknowledging all these emotions, I can understand racism and especially its triggers. Yet, I cannot change a racist into a lover of all races.

At present in South Africa racism can only be punished as Crimen injuria. However, a new bill to combat hate speech and hate crime is about to become law. The deadline to read and comment on this bill was December 1st , but it is still available on the Department of Justice’s website for the man on the street to become fully acquainted with it.

And this brings me to the million dollar question:

Will punishment change the mindset of a racist?

Personally I suspect that punishment will rather increase hate not only towards members of opposite races, but also towards members of one’s own race.

I believe punishment will only inspire people to keep their racist thoughts to themselves instead of upsetting or humiliating others with them.

Personally I believe that racists are dangerous beings aiming to create serious trouble, misery and conflict, and like murderers and other criminals, they need advanced psychological treatment, including hypnosis, in order to become normal, law-abiding and acceptable people.

By the way, an owfma-sa is an ordinary white middle-aged South African whose opinions are totally unable to effect change.

Let's enjoy one of my favorite songs -

Paul McCartney – We All Stand Together Lyrics

Win or lose, sink or swim
One thing is certain we'll never give in
Side by side, hand in hand
We all stand together

Play the game, fight the fight
But what's the point on a beautiful night?
Arm in arm, hand in hand
We all stand together

Keeping us warm in the night
La la la la
Walk in the night
You'll get it right

Win or lose, sink or swim
One thing is certain we'll never give in
Side by side, hand in hand
We all stand together

© 2016 Martie Coetser


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • MartieCoetser profile imageAUTHOR

      Martie Coetser 

      23 months ago from South Africa

      Hi Nell

      Exactly! I despise white supremacists. They cause the most intense hatred towards all whites.

      One saddening problem down here is the fact that black-on-white racism seems to be acceptable down here, while the merest white-on-black act gets labelled as racist. SA has a very LONG way to go before racism will become part of the past. Perhaps it will never become part of the past.

    • Nell Rose profile image

      Nell Rose 

      23 months ago from England

      I get so mad at racists. It just shows how thick and stupid they are. We live on a tiny little Planet in the middle of nothing, our skin is a different color because of melamin, simple. Or it should be shouldn't it?

    • MartieCoetser profile imageAUTHOR

      Martie Coetser 

      3 years ago from South Africa

      Hi Genna! Same here! We were taught that everybody is the neighbor we must love as much as we love ourselves. Unfortunately, we didn't really understand what love is. I wonder if we understand it today? I mean, what do we do when we see a person who has less than we have? Would it be love if we give them there and then exactly half of what we have? Exactly when do we love ourselves more than we love our neighbor? What a challenging issue to ponder! Take care, dear Genna!

    • MartieCoetser profile imageAUTHOR

      Martie Coetser 

      3 years ago from South Africa

      Alicia, racism is disgusting and sickening, indeed! I have no respect for racists. To be honest, I detest them. I wonder what kind of 'ist' should we call people who detest racists. Thanks for reading and commenting, Alicia :)

    • MartieCoetser profile imageAUTHOR

      Martie Coetser 

      3 years ago from South Africa

      Ms Dora, to determine how long racism will still be present, we use the USA as a guideline. As far as I (think I) know, in the USA all races finally got voting rights in 1965 (51 years ago), while 1994 was the year in SA (22 years ago). How present is racism still in the USA? Will it ever become part of mankind's past? Fortunately, racists are by far the minority down her, as it is in the USA, but unfortunately, their doings have a mighty negative effect on all. Let's hope love will do miracles in 2017. Hugs to you, Ms Dora (xoxo) :)

    • Genna East profile image

      Genna East 

      3 years ago from Massachusetts, USA

      These stories and incidents are so disturbing. Racial prejudices run deep...not just with Apartheid, but we can trace the same of the history of slavery in our southern states. Southern slaveholders often used biblical passages to justify slavery. We were raised to never be prejudiced against anyone -- ever. To me, it is a horrific sin against humanity, so I have a hard time getting my mind around how anyone could possibly justify it. I also agree with your statement: "Personally I suspect that punishment will rather increase hate not only towards members of opposite races, but also towards members of one’s own race." Love that McCartney tune. :-)

    • AliciaC profile image

      Linda Crampton 

      3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Racism is disgusting and sickening no matter where it occurs. The situation in South Africa is horrible, but unfortunately racism is present in other countries, too. Thank you for sharing another important hub, Martie.

    • MsDora profile image

      Dora Weithers 

      3 years ago from The Caribbean

      It's difficult to read all these hate-filled scenarios, especially since I was not aware that racism was still so much present after apartheid. What a dilemma!

    • MartieCoetser profile imageAUTHOR

      Martie Coetser 

      3 years ago from South Africa

      Dear Mar, this must be telepathy - me checking comments only 11 minutes after your have posted one. Yes, racism, like corruption, is alive all over. So sad! Love you, dear sista!

    • marcoujor profile image

      Maria Jordan 

      3 years ago from Jeffersonville PA

      You have tackled a most distasteful subject - that is sadly not isolated to South Africa, dear Martie.

      Thanks for the adorable video with the beautiful message - it gives me hope. Love you lots, mar

    • MartieCoetser profile imageAUTHOR

      Martie Coetser 

      3 years ago from South Africa

      Billy, perhaps I am a skeptic, or perhaps I am only curious, but I always try to find the reason(s) behind a person's actions and utterances. I am afraid, the reasons I find behind the actions and utterances of racists are deplorable. What amuse me is their arrogance and self-confidence; they truly believe they are right and everybody else is wrong. I associate them with one wise man's quote: "The less one know, the more they think they know. The more one knows, the more they know how little they know."

    • billybuc profile image

      Bill Holland 

      3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Again, Martie, I so appreciate you continuing this discussion. How racism is even an issue in 2016 is beyond me. I simply never will understand it.

    • MartieCoetser profile imageAUTHOR

      Martie Coetser 

      3 years ago from South Africa

      @ mckbirdbks, same here. More prisons have to be built down here, and more effective rehabilitation and self-sustaining programs have to be applied. After all, the goverment's duty is to protect law-abiding citizens against criminals, and also, in cooperation with parents, to educate and lead the immature until they are self-sustaining, responsible and law-abiding citizens.

      @ Always, for some reason some people like the lady in the video, are under the impression that being black and being incompetent are synonyms. Only the truth - experiencing the truth - will eventually change their views.

      Another interesting fact: Whites who believe they are superior to blacks are mostly the below-average achievers among whites. And this gives substance to the fact that humans - or rather those who are not able to control their primitive instincts - need to look up as well as down to fellow-humans, instead of feeling equal to all.

      @ Nell, racists are often, if not always, those who hate and slander their own relatives. Instead of being filled with love, they have too much hate inside, which needs to be projected onto others. They are the bullies and intimidators in this world.

    • Nell Rose profile image

      Nell Rose 

      3 years ago from England

      I totally agree with you Martie. any form of racism makes me so mad! the racists are so darn thick!

    • always exploring profile image

      Ruby Jean Richert 

      3 years ago from Southern Illinois

      This was another highly emotional read. Racism is a terrible reality around the world. I remember growing up in a small town in Illinois we had two black people who lived there. One was named N. John, who lived down by the river in a shack. The other was named N. Ford. who was a woman who worked as a cook at The Elks Club. I never could understand why they chose to live there. Mrs. Ford sometimes took care of me when my mother had to work. I loved her and she loved me. I was 4 years old, even then I wondered why people looked down on her. I remember well how my mother taught me that we all were God's children, just different skin colors. I thought racism was on the decline since President Obama was elected twice by a majority vote, but I believe it is on the rise again in some areas. I watched the video of the white woman's rant against blacks. She was full of hate, how sad. I truly admire your stance against racism. Your timely reporting is important. That old adage, " If you don't stand up for something, you'll fall for anything. " rings true. Thank you dear friend. Stay safe. Peace.

    • mckbirdbks profile image


      3 years ago from Emerald Wells, Just off the crossroads,Texas

      Hello Martie - Seems there is enough hate, and distrust to go around the world several times. Will threat of punishment reduce Racism? I don't think threat of punishment reduces any type of crime. Prisons here in the U.S. are bulging at the seams with people.

    • MartieCoetser profile imageAUTHOR

      Martie Coetser 

      3 years ago from South Africa

      FlourishAnyway, according to what I read on the Internet, racism is still very much alive in America, and I believe it is reborn in all its ugliness in Europe since the influx of refugees from North Africa. Contemplating the latter, I realize that there is in fact a form of allowable 'clinging to and trusting one's own', but just a little bit too much of it becomes blatant racism. Why, dear Lord, I ask, have all people not the same color of skin? But then, even if were all green, our language and culture would keep us apart. But still, nothing allow us to hate and reject people who are not exactly the same as us.

    • MartieCoetser profile imageAUTHOR

      Martie Coetser 

      3 years ago from South Africa

      Hi Treasure! Wonderful to see you in my hub :) I think the SABC, and the media in general, are racist, but most probably unknowingly in an effort to lift the victims of Apartheid up to where they belong, which is a good thing to do. Fortunately we can handle the current discrimination, as we still have other opportunities to grab and enjoy, like DSTV, and the Internet with its many options. Thanks again for the big surprise :)

    • MartieCoetser profile imageAUTHOR

      Martie Coetser 

      3 years ago from South Africa

      Dear Nell, re black-on-white racism: sadly, the black people in our country - well, the majority - are still in a state of mourning, actually stuck in the phases of mourning. It may take 50 years to overcome the pain, sadness, and consequent anger we know exist in the process of mourning the what-could/should-have been. I have learned the hard way to accept their behavior by calling it mourning/bereavement, and as you know, a person who is in mourning doesn't want to hear anything about the misery and adversities of others. They are absolutely filled with their own thoughts and emotions. So, I wait and pray for racism to disappear into the past.

      Re white-on-black racism - Really, I just don't have any respect for a white racist. Who the h@## do they thing they are, believing that they are superior to any other human being? Sadly, their intellectual limitation prevents them from seeing and understanding the bigger picture.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image


      3 years ago from USA

      What a horrible collection of scenarios. I wish this were behind us and thought that the severity was in fact history but hate is alive and well in so many areas of the world. We each need to stand up and speak against hateful acts.

    • profile image

      Treasure Coetser 

      3 years ago

      Martie, What an eye opener your blog has been! Having never been racist myself, I have to say that no matter what the color of one's skin is, any facesious comments or discrimination towards any human being is unacceptable! Yet our very own SABC gives some racist politicians a platform to spew hatred, threats and racism? Surely what's good for the goose is good for the gander?

    • Nell Rose profile image

      Nell Rose 

      3 years ago from England

      Hi Martie, phew! Racism! what a horrible word! reading what you say about it being around 1991 when segregation was stopped it seems that its so late in the day! other countries got rid of it decades ago, and I think thats the problem. its still pretty clear in peoples heads. saying that, the person, can't remember, above you said 'you can't have racism against a white person' is just plain stupid! for starters slavery and racism is NOT just a black persons property! at the same time that whites had black slaves, Arabs had 1 and a half million white slaves! taken from England, Wales Ireland Sweden and Norway! taken from ships, coastlines houses and schools! we were treated just as poor as black people. trouble is white people are so darn proud we sweep it under the carpet so to speak! and that is where we have gone wrong. if we want equality we have to let black people and others know we were tortured too. great piece of writing Martie!


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)