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Racism: The Killer Of Life's Variety And Beauty

Updated on July 23, 2013

Colored people

Racism is a cancer

I was reading a hub about the FBI's COINTELPRO and how they were illegally neutralizing emerging groups and people who were standing up for their rights. This led me to read about the " National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" and then the Black Nationalist group. I ended my long read with the history of Martin Luther King Jr. It was such an interesting Journey of history for me, even as I thought of how brutal racism was.. Then I remembered this Poem.

I once wrote it, after the FIFA President, Sepp Blatter carelessly spoke about racism in football as not been serious and over hyped. This caused some spark around the globe and it as well prompted me to compose this poem. It is reposted from my website, but is definitely my work and I hope hubpages would be cool with it. So enjoy

black people

even with the advantage given to the later, its still turns out to be the hater
even with the advantage given to the later, its still turns out to be the hater

Try out this Awesome Novel: THE SOUL TALKERS

Now the Poem!

Have you ever wondered:
Why air is a mixture of gases and not just one matter?
Have you ever wondered:
how the radiation from Sun consists of several rays?
Have you ever wondered:
How metal and wood can make up a door?
Have you ever wondered:
Why diversity is the bedrock of nature?
And no National Flag consists of only one color?

Why then:
Green and black grapes cannot be at par?
Why then:
Coffee and Whiskey cannot be served in the same bar?
Why then:
A sunflower and the rose cannot grow in the same Jar?
And then we make these pairing possibilities seem so afar?

And yet!
Some make one less and the other better.
Even with the advantage given to the latter,
it still turns out to be the hater.
Leaving the former feeling very bitter
and in both minds hatred litter
and forgetting that the difference is not as thick as a centimeter.

Let's come together to fight racism!

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    • Leptirela profile image

      Leptirela 3 years ago from I don't know half the time

      I agree totally , Its also important to pass onto children the positivity of difference in people. That is after all the beauty of it.

      I just wish the 'racists' and those segregating within the world would change their perspective and views of the world. It is amazing what the world has to offer and all these colours races cultures and shapes and sizes and mentalities and experience etc , maybe Im not wording this right but my point is we live in an amazing world - sadly there are those who kill and judge and isolate and hate perhaps... thats the only sad thing and they have no idea what they are missing by not seeing through, for example, my eyes.

      I love your hub.

      I think its very important that you chose this subject

      Excellent

    • Cresentmoon2007 profile image

      Cresentmoon2007 3 years ago from Caledonia, MI

      You have made a remarkable point here. Keep up the amazing writing.

    • CarolineVABC profile image

      CarolineVABC 3 years ago from Castaic

      What a thought provoking article, Funom Makama 3! When it comes to racism, it is like a two-edged sword. The ones who believe they are superior than the rest of us and the ones who get belittled; however, the ones who are discriminated upon should also be careful that they do not become racists or haters, themselves.

      I believe we have all been on either side of the coin, but with varying degrees. Many just try to be cautious with their dealings with other races due to what they hear in the media, although I do agree that there are some who dislike some groups because that's how they were raised or just simply by choosing to be a racist. These are inevitable in our society, I'm afraid. We all need to be aware of our surroundings, but simply disliking someone because of their ethnicity or looks or just because they believe that they are superior, is unacceptable. I like your quote very much,

      "Some make one less and the other better.

      Even with the advantage given to the latter,

      it still turns out to be the hater.

      Leaving the former feeling very bitter

      and in both minds hatred litter

      and forgetting that the difference is not as thick as a centimeter."

      It sums it all up! Thank you for sharing your talent and wisdom. Keep writing. God bless!

    • one2recognize2 profile image

      one2recognize2 3 years ago from New York

      Wonderful poem, thanks for sharing!

    • profile image

      Thida 3 years ago

      Got any funny quotes on rasicm, or racial slurs against the romani people?I need a good return to bigots whom points out gypsies as a useless people of scoundrels and thieves..I'm a writer myself. And getting sick and tired of bullshitters whom come with racial slurs and i call them for what they are, and they feel all whiny Work with me on this one, and I'll share my own blog

    • skellie profile image

      skellie 3 years ago from Adelaide

      Beautiful, thoughtful work. All it takes is one.... one step....one voice.....one person, to make a change for unity.

    • laurathegentleman profile image

      laurathegentleman 4 years ago from Chapel Hill, NC

      Amazing. I'm also excited to see how many comments and conversation this Hub has inspired!

      Great work!

    • Funom Makama 3 profile image
      Author

      Funom Theophilus Makama 4 years ago from Europe

      thanks a lot DDE

    • DDE profile image

      Devika Primić 4 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

      I have had a few experiences concerning racism when I lived in South Africa it awful of how some people can treat others just because of color. Awesome read, thanks

    • Funom Makama 3 profile image
      Author

      Funom Theophilus Makama 4 years ago from Europe

      thanks alot KoffeeKlatch Gals

    • KoffeeKlatch Gals profile image

      Susan Haze 4 years ago from Sunny Florida

      Thank you for the poem. It is awesome. You lose so much when you only look at the outside of a person. I am going to read your poem to my Language Arts class. It's going to make a heck of a lesson.

    • Funom Makama 3 profile image
      Author

      Funom Theophilus Makama 4 years ago from Europe

      thanks a lot Asp52

    • Asp52 profile image

      Asp52 4 years ago from England

      A very honest and beautiful hub. A rainbow is made of many colours and as a people so are we. One day we will embrace we are one people under many many stars.

    • Funom Makama 3 profile image
      Author

      Funom Theophilus Makama 4 years ago from Europe

      thanks a lot for ur most precious comment, aviannovice

    • aviannovice profile image

      Deb Hirt 4 years ago from Stillwater, OK

      Prejudice is one of the few things that REALLY gets under my skin. I wrote a piece myself on appealing for world peace. It will never happen unless we choose to feel equal to and respect one another for all our differences.

    • Funom Makama 3 profile image
      Author

      Funom Theophilus Makama 4 years ago from Europe

      Thanks a lot JasminRace

    • JasminRace profile image

      Jasmin 4 years ago from United Kingdom

      You have some really great hubs, very talented writer! Voted up :) x

    • Lyn.Stewart profile image

      Lyn.Stewart 4 years ago from Auckland, New Zealand

      voted up ...useful and interesting. this is a great hub and is needed to open some peoples eyes that we are all the same on the inside.

      It saddens me when anyone dislikes others due to as you wisely said the difference that is not as thick as a centimeter.

    • profile image

      Billiards779 4 years ago

      beautiful poem, I believe that the human spirit has, as one of it's missions,the need to explore and experience the world. Experiencing the world is a journey that should have no pre-imposed limit. It is a journey that should start and end with exploring the nature, beauty and people of the world. Sometimes our potential or vocation can be revealed to us by others, our expectations of ourselves and our perception of our abilities and self worth can be enhanced and highlighted by other human beings. These other human beings can be people of any walk of life, race etc. It is very limiting to yourself to be racist because you have limited the possibilities that your potential may carry. The possibility to meet a person of a race other than yours who may have played a major role in your development and be it spiritually, financially or emotionally, you may never speak to someone who has a piece of your puzzle. I believe we should all embrace the freedom to experience the world freely and follow the story of our live's no matter where it leads or who it leads to

    • Funom Makama 3 profile image
      Author

      Funom Theophilus Makama 4 years ago from Europe

      Thanks guys.... As I will always beg, pls, simple comments are what I need and not copying and pasting wikipedia... This is not nice at all.

      Thank you.

    • profile image

      Darwinism 4 years ago

      In the second half of the 19th century, Darwinism, the decline of Christian belief, and growing immigration were all perceived by many white Westerners as a threat to their cultural control. European and, to a lesser degree, American scientists and philosophers devised a false racial "science" to "prove" the supremacy of non-Jewish whites. While the Nazi annihilation of Jews discredited most of these supposedly scientific efforts to elevate one race over another, small numbers of scientists and social scientists have continued throughout the 20th century to argue the inborn shortcomings of certain races, especially Blacks. At the same time, some public figures in the American Black community have championed the supremacy of their own race and the inferiority of whites - using nearly the identical language of white racists.

      All of these arguments are based on a false understanding of race; in fact, contemporary scientists are not agreed on whether race is a valid way to classify people. What may seem to be significant "racial" differences to some people - skin color, hair, facial shape - are not of much scientific significance. In fact, genetic differences within a so-called race may be greater than those between races. One philosopher writes: "There are few genetic characteristics to be found in the population of England that are not found in similar proportions in Zaire or in China….those differences that most deeply affect us in our dealings with each other are not to any significant degree biologically determined."

    • profile image

      One important feature of racism 4 years ago

      One important feature of racism, especially toward Blacks and immigrant groups, is clear in attitudes regarding slaves and slavery. Jews are usually seen by anti-Semites as subhuman but also superhuman: devilishly cunning, skilled, and powerful. Blacks and others are seen by racists as merely subhuman, more like beasts than men. If the focus of anti-Semitism is evil, the focus of racism is inferiority -- directed toward those who have sometimes been considered to lack even the ability to be evil (though in the 20th century, especially, victims of racism are often considered morally degraded).

    • profile image

      This belief was not "automatic" 4 years ago

      This belief was not "automatic": that is, Africans were not originally considered inferior. When Portuguese sailors first explored Africa in the 15th and 16th centuries, they came upon empires and cities as advanced as their own, and they considered Africans to be serious rivals. Over time, though, as African civilizations failed to match the technological advances of Europe, and the major European powers began to plunder the continent and forcibly remove its inhabitants to work as slave laborers in new colonies across the Atlantic, Africans came to be seen as a deficient "species," as "savages." To an important extent, this view was necessary to justify the slave trade at a time when Western culture had begun to promote individual rights and human equality. The willingness of some Africans to sell other Africans to European slave traders also led to claims of savagery, based on the false belief that the "dark people" were all kinsmen, all part of one society - as opposed to many different, sometimes warring nations.

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      racism on the part of Western powers 4 years ago

      During the past 500-1000 years, racism on the part of Western powers toward non-Westerners has had a far more significant impact on history than any other form of racism (such as racism among Western groups or among Easterners, such as Asians, Africans, and others). The most notorious example of racism by the West has been slavery, particularly the enslavement of Africans in the New World (slavery itself dates back thousands of years). This enslavement was accomplished because of the racist belief that Black Africans were less fully human than white Europeans and their descendants.

    • profile image

      Racism has existed throughout human history 4 years ago

      It may be defined as the hatred of one person by another -- or the belief that another person is less than human -- because of skin color, language, customs, place of birth or any factor that supposedly reveals the basic nature of that person. It has influenced wars, slavery, the formation of nations, and legal codes.

    • profile image

      Racism 4 years ago

      Racism is the belief that a particular race is superior or inferior to another, that a person’s social and moral traits are predetermined by his or her inborn biological characteristics. Racial separatism is the belief, most of the time based on racism, that different races should remain segregated and apart from one another.

    • profile image

      International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination 4 years ago

      UNESCO marks March 21 as the yearly International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, in memory of the events that occurred on March 21, 1960 in Sharpeville, South Africa, where police killed student demonstrators peacefully protesting against the apartheid regime.

    • profile image

      Anti-Racism 4 years ago

      Anti-racism include beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism. In general, it promotes an egalitarian society in which people are not discriminated against in race. Movements such as the African-American Civil Rights Movement and the Anti-Apartheid Movement were examples of anti-racist movements. Nonviolent resistance is sometimes an element of anti-racial movements, although this was not always the case. Hate crime laws and affirmative action are also examples of government policy designed to suppress racism.

    • profile image

      Research on influencing factors 4 years ago

      Research has examined factors influencing tolerance, in particular ethnic tolerance, prejudice, and trust. Authoritarian personality has been associated with prejudice and intolerance. Education has an inverse association which is stronger in established democracies than in emerging. Different groups are viewed differently and including illegal groups in tolerance surveys may reduce tolerance levels in all counties except the United States. Increased contact with other groups increase tolerance. Increased perception of threat, including from the home land of an ethnic minority, reduces tolerance. Competition over jobs reduces tolerance and occupational segregation reduced ethnic conflicts and ethnic prejudice in studies in the United States and Yugoslavia. Tolerance is increased by democratic stability and a federal system. Increased ethnic heterogeneity increases tolerance up to a point but beyond this tolerance decreases. The negative effect of increased ethnic heterogeneity is stronger when looking at larger areas such as nations compared to smaller areas such as neighborhoods. This may be due to the contact effect being relatively more important at local levels while the threat effect becomes more important in larger areas

    • profile image

      Inter-minority variants 4 years ago

      Prejudiced thinking among and between minority groups does occur, for example conflicts between African Americans and Korean Americans (notably in the Los Angeles riots of 1992), by blacks towards Jews (such as the riots in Crown Heights in 1991), between new immigrant groups (such as Latinos), or towards whites.[175][176][177][178]

      African-Americans in Dallas boycotting a Korean owned Kwik Stop in a mostly black neighborhood, March 2012.[179]

      There has been a long-running racial tension between African Americans and Mexican Americans.[180][181][182] There have been several significant riots in California prisons in which Mexican American inmates and African Americans have specifically targeted each other based on racial reasons.[182][183] There have been reports of racially motivated attacks against African Americans who have moved into neighborhoods occupied mostly by Mexican Americans, and vice versa.[184][185] In the late 1920s in California, there was animosity between the Filipinos and the Mexicans and between European Americans and Filipino Americans since they competed for the same jobs.[186] Recently, there has also been an increase in racial violence between African immigrants and Blacks who have already lived in the country for generations.[187]

      The Aztlan movement has been described as racist. The movement's goal is repossession of the American southwest. It has also been called the Mexican "reconquista" (re-conquest) whose name was inspired by the Spanish reconquista, which led to the expulsion of the Moors from Spain.[188] Over 50 members of the Azusa 13 gang, associated with the Mexican Mafia, were indicted in 2011 for harassing and intimidating African Americans.[189]

      In Britain, tensions between minority groups can be just as strong as those between minorities and the majority population. In Birmingham, there have been long-term divisions between the Black and South Asian communities, which were illustrated in the Handsworth riots[disambiguation needed] and in the smaller 2005 Birmingham riots. In Dewsbury, a Yorkshire town with a relatively high Muslim population, there have been tensions and minor civil disturbances between Kurds and South Asians.[190][191]

      In France, home to Europe’s largest population of Muslims — about 6 million — as well as the continent’s largest community of Jews, about 600,000, anti-Jewish violence, property destruction, and racist language has been increasing over the last several years. Jewish leaders perceive the Muslim population as intensifying anti-Semitism in France, mainly among Muslims of Arab or African heritage, but also this anti-Semitism is perceived as also growing among Caribbean islanders from former colonies

    • profile image

      Anonymous 4 years ago

      Some 70,000 black African Mauritanians were expelled from Mauritania in the late 1980s.[149] In the Sudan, black African captives in the civil war were often enslaved, and female prisoners were often used sexually.[150] The Darfur conflict has been described by some as a racial matter.[151] In October 2006, Niger announced that it would deport the Arabs living in the Diffa region of eastern Niger to Chad.[152] This population numbered about 150,000.[153] While the Government collected Arabs in preparation for the deportation, two girls died, reportedly after fleeing Government forces, and three women suffered miscarriages.[154]

      The Ethiopian Jewish community's integration into Israeli society has been complicated by racist attitudes on the part of some elements of Israeli society and the official establishment.[155][156] The Israeli media reported that residents of Pisgat Ze'ev, a large Jewish neighbourhood in Jerusalem, had formed a vigilante-style patrol to stop interracial dating between Arab men and local Jewish girls. In the 2007 poll, more than half of Israeli Jews said that intermarriage should be equated with “national treason”.[157]

      The burnt out remains of Govinda's Indian Restaurant in Fiji, May 2000

      The Jakarta riots of May 1998 targeted many Chinese Indonesians.[158] The anti-Chinese legislation was in the Indonesian constitution until 1998. Xenophobia against Chinese migrants is currently on the rise in Africa[159][160][161] and Oceania.[162][163] Anti-Chinese rioting, involving tens of thousands of people,[164] broke out in Papua New Guinea in May 2009.[165] The Fiji coup of 2000 has provoked a violent backlash against the Indo-Fijians.[166] Fiji citizens of Indian, European, mixed race or other island heritage have become second-class citizens.[167][168] Racial divisions also exist in Guyana,[169] Malaysia,[170] Trinidad and Tobago,[171] Madagascar,[172] or South Africa.[173]

      One particularly pernicious form of racism in the United States is racial segregation, which, it can be argued, continues to exist today

    • profile image

      Contemporary 4 years ago

      During the Congo Civil War (1998–2003), Pygmies were hunted down like game animals and eaten. Both sides of the war regarded them as "subhuman" and some say their flesh can confer magical powers. UN human rights activists reported in 2003 that rebels had carried out acts of cannibalism. Sinafasi Makelo, a representative of Mbuti pygmies, has asked the UN Security Council to recognise cannibalism as a crime against humanity and an act of genocide.[128] A report released by the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination condemns Botswana's treatment of the 'Bushmen' as racist.[129] In 2008, the tribunal of the 15-nation Southern African Development Community (SADC) accused Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe of having a racist attitude towards white people.[130][131] In Liberia, the constitution restricts citizenship to only people of black African descent.[132]

      On 12 September 2011, Julius Malema, youth leader of South Africa's ruling ANC, was found guilty of hate speech for singing 'Shoot the Boer' at a number of public events.[133]

      The mass demonstrations and riots against African students in Nanjing, China, lasted from December 1988 to January 1989.[134] Bar owners in central Beijing had been forced “not to serve black people or Mongolians” during the 2008 Summer Olympics.[135] Some neighborhood committees in Guangzhou bar Africans from living in residential complexes.[136] In November 2009, British newspaper The Guardian reported that Lou Jing, of mixed Chinese and African parentage, had emerged as the most famous talent show contestant in China and has become the subject of intense debate because of her skin colour.[137] Her attention in the media opened serious debates about racism in China and racial prejudice.[138]

      In Asia and Latin America, light skin is seen as more attractive.[139] Thus, skin whitening cosmetic products are popular in East Asia[140] and India.[5] Some activists, most prominently at the UN conference at Durban, have asserted that the caste system in India is a form of racial discrimination.,[141][142] although many prominent[143] scholars debunk this viewpoint as "scientifically nonsense",[144] since there are no consistent racial differences between the different castes in India. These activists utilize genetic studies that claim to corroborate their view,[145] although other more detailed studies have challenged these assertions as overtly simplistic[146][147] Currently, there are approximately 165 million Dalits (formerly known as "untouchables") in India.,

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      20th century 4 years ago

      The Nazis considered Jews, Gypsies, Poles and other Slavic people such as the Russians, Ukrainians, Czechs and anyone else who was not an "Aryan" according to the contemporary Nazi race terminology to be subhuman (Untermensch). The Nazis rationalized that the Germans, being a super human (Übermenschlich) race, had a biological right to displace, eliminate and enslave inferiors.[116] Some 6 million Jews were killed by the Nazis during the Holocaust. In the longer term,[117] the Nazis wanted to exterminate some 30–45 million Slavs.[118]

      After the war, under the "Big Plan", Generalplan Ost foresaw the eventual expulsion of more than 50 million non-Germanized Slavs of Eastern Europe through forced migration, as well as some of the Balts, beyond the Ural Mountains and into Siberia. In their place, Germans would be settled in an extended "living space" (Lebensraum) of the 1000-Year Empire (Tausendjähriges Reich). Herbert Backe was one of the orchestrators of the Hunger Plan – the plan to starve tens of millions of Slavs in order to ensure steady food supplies for the German people and troops.[119]

      Heinrich Himmler speech to about 100 SS Group Leaders in Posen, occupied Poland, 1943:

      "What happens to the Russians, what happens to the Czechs, is a matter of utter indifference to me... Whether the other peoples live in comfort or perish of hunger interests me only in so far as we need them as slaves for our culture; apart from that it does not interest me. Whether or not 10,000 Russian women collapse from exhaustion while digging a tank ditch interests me only in so far as the tank ditch is completed for Germany... We Germans, who are the only people in the world who have a decent attitude to animals, will also adopt a decent attitude to these human animals, but it is a crime against our own blood to worry about them and to bring them ideals... I shall speak to you here with all frankness of a very serious subject. We shall now discuss it absolutely openly among ourselves, nevertheless we shall never speak of it in public. I mean the evacuation of the Jews, the extermination of the Jewish race."[120]

      Serious race riots in Durban between Indians and Zulus erupted in 1949.[121] Ne Win's rise to power in Burma in 1962 and his relentless persecution of "resident aliens" led to an exodus of some 300,000 Burmese Indians.[122] They migrated to escape racial discrimination and wholesale nationalisation of private enterprise a few years later in 1964.[123] The Zanzibar Revolution of January 12, 1964 put an end to the local Arab dynasty.[124] Thousands of Arabs and Indians in Zanzibar were massacred in riots, and thousands more were detained or fled the island.[125] On 4 August 1972, Idi Amin, President of Uganda, ethnically cleansed Uganda's Asians giving them 90 days to leave the country.[126]

      Shortly after world war II the South African National Party took control over the governance in South Africa. Between 1948 and 1994, the Apartheid regime took place. This regime based their ideologies on the racial separation of whites and non- whites including the unequal rights of non-whites. Several protests and violence occurred during the Apartheid in South Africa, the most famous of these include the Sharpeville Massacre in 1960, the Soweto uprising in 1976, the Church Street bombing of 1983 and the Cape Town peace march of 1989.

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      Anonymous 4 years ago

      However, the Hamitic peoples themselves were often deemed to have failed as rulers, which was usually ascribed to interbreeding with Negroes. In the mid-20th century, the German scholar Carl Meinhof (1857–1944) claimed that the Bantu race was formed by a merger of Hamitic and Negro races. The Hottentots (Nama or Khoi) were formed by the merger of Hamitic and Bushmen (San) races — both being termed nowadays as Khoisan peoples).

      One in a series of posters attacking Radical Republicans on the issue of black suffrage, issued during the Pennsylvania gubernatorial election of 1866.

      In the United States in the early 19th century, the American Colonization Society was established as the primary vehicle for proposals to return black Americans to greater freedom and equality in Africa.[112] The colonization effort resulted from a mixture of motives with its founder Henry Clay stating; "unconquerable prejudice resulting from their color, they never could amalgamate with the free whites of this country. It was desirable, therefore, as it respected them, and the residue of the population of the country, to drain them off".[113] Racism spread throughout the New World in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Whitecapping, which started in Indiana in the late 19th century, soon spread throughout all of North America, causing many African laborers to flee from the land they worked on. In the US during the 1860s, racist posters were used during election campaigns. In one of these racist posters (see above), a black man is depicted lounging idly in the foreground as one white man ploughs his field and another chops wood. Accompanying labels are: "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat thy bread," and "The white man must work to keep his children and pay his taxes." The black man wonders, "Whar is de use for me to work as long as dey make dese appropriations." Above in a cloud is an image of the "Freedman's Bureau! Negro Estimate of Freedom!" The bureau is pictured as a large domed building resembling the U.S. Capitol and is inscribed "Freedom and No Work." Its columns and walls are labeled, "Candy," "Rum, Gin, Whiskey," "Sugar Plums," "Indolence," "White Women," "Apathy," "White Sugar," "Idleness," and so on.

      On June 5, 1873, Sir Francis Galton, distinguished English explorer and cousin of Charles Darwin, wrote in a letter to The Times:

      "My proposal is to make the encouragement of Chinese settlements of Africa a part of our national policy, in the belief that the Chinese immigrants would not only maintain their position, but that they would multiply and their descendants supplant the inferior Negro race" "I should expect that the African seaboard, now sparsely occupied by lazy, palavering savages, might in a few years be tenanted by industrious, order-loving Chinese, living either as a semidetached dependency of China, or else in perfect freedom under their own law

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      19th century 4 years ago

      Authors such as Hannah Arendt, in her 1951 book The Origins of Totalitarianism, have said that the racist ideology (popular racism) that developed at the end of the 19th century helped legitimize the imperialist conquests of foreign territories and the acts that accompanied them (such as the Herero and Namaqua Genocide of 1904–1907 or the Armenian Genocide of 1915–1917). Rudyard Kipling's poem The White Man's Burden (1899) is one of the more famous illustrations of the belief in the inherent superiority of the European culture over the rest of the world, though also it is also thought to be a satirical appraisal of such imperialism. Racist ideology thus helped legitimize subjugation and the dismantling of the traditional societies of indigenous peoples, which were regarded as humanitarian obligations as a result of these racist beliefs.

      An illustration from Harper's Weekly shows an alleged similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to the higher "Anglo-Teutonic."

      However, during the 19th century, West European colonial powers were involved in the suppression of the Arab slave trade in Africa,[105] as well as in suppression of the slave trade in West Africa.[106] Other colonialists recognized the depravity of their actions but persisted for personal gain; some Europeans during the time period objected to the injustices caused by colonialism and lobbied on behalf of aboriginal peoples. Thus, when the Hottentot Venus was displayed in England in the beginning of the 19th century, the African Association publicly opposed itself to the exhibition. The same year that Kipling published his poem, Joseph Conrad published Heart of Darkness (1899), a clear criticism of the Congo Free State owned by Leopold II of Belgium.

      Examples of racial theories used include the creation of the Hamitic ethno-linguistic group during the European exploration of Africa. It was then restricted by Karl Friedrich Lepsius (1810–1877) to non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic languages.[107]

      The term Hamite was applied to different populations within Africa, mainly comprising Ethiopians, Eritreans, Somalis, Berbers, and Nubians. Hamites were regarded as Caucasoid peoples who probably originated in either Arabia or Asia on the basis of their cultural, physical and linguistic similarities with the peoples of those areas.[108][109][110] Europeans considered Hamites to be more civilized than Black Africans, and more akin to themselves and Semitic peoples.[111] In the first two-thirds of the 20th century, the Hamitic race was, in fact, considered one of the branches of the Caucasian race, along with the Indo-Europeans, Dravidians, Semites, and the Mediterranean race.

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      As state-sponsored activity 4 years ago

      State racism—that is, institutions and practices of a nation-state that are grounded in racist ideology—has played a major role in all instances of settler colonialism, from the United States to Australia to Israel. It also played a prominent role in the Nazi German regime and fascist regimes in Europe, and in the first part of Japan’s Shōwa period. These governments advocated and implemented policies that were racist, xenophobic and, in case of Nazism, genocidal.[82][83] The politics of Zimbabwe promote discrimination against whites, in an effort to ethnically cleanse the country.[84]

      Legislative state racism is known to have been enforced by the National Party of South Africa during their Apartheid regime between 1948 and 1994. Here a series of Apartheid legislation in South Africa was passed through the legal systems to make it legal for white South Africans to have rights which were superior to those of non-white South Africans. Non-white South Africans were not allowed involvement in any governing matters, including voting; access to quality healthcare; the provision of basic services, including clean water; electricity; as well as access to adequate schooling. Non-white South Africans were also prevented from accessing certain public areas, using certain public transportation and were required to live only in certain designated areas. Non-white South Africans were taxed differently from white South Africans and were required to carry on them at all times additional documentation, which later became known as “dom passes”, to certify their non-white South African citizenship. All of these legislative racial laws were abolished through a series of equal human rights laws passed at the end of Apartheid in the early 1990s.

      State racism contributed as well to the formation of the Dominican Republic's identity [85] and violent actions encouraged by Dominican governmental xenophobia against Haitians and "Haitian looking" people. Currently the Dominican Republic employs a de facto system of separatism for children and grandchildren of Haitians and black Dominicans, denying them birth certificates, education and access to health care

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      Evolutionary theories about the origins of racism 4 years ago

      Some research suggests that ethnocentric thinking may have actually contributed to the development of cooperation. Political scientists Ross Hammond and Robert Axelrod created a computer simulation wherein virtual individuals were randomly assigned one of a variety of skin colors, and then one of a variety of trading strategies: be color-blind, favor those of your own color, or favor those of other colors. They found that the ethnocentric individuals clustered together, then grew until all the non-ethnocentric individuals were wiped out.[79]

      In The Selfish Gene, evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins writes that "Blood-feuds and inter-clan warfare are easily interpretable in terms of Hamilton's genetic theory." Dawkins writes that racial prejudice, while not evolutionarily adaptive, "could be interpreted as an irrational generalization of a kin-selected tendency to identify with individuals physically resembling oneself, and to be nasty to individuals different in appearance".[80] Simulation-based experiments in evolutionary game theory have attempted to provide an explanation for the selection of ethnocentric-strategy phenotypes.

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      Evolutionary theories about the origins of racism 4 years ago

      Biologists John Tooby and Leda Cosmides were puzzled by the fact that race is one of the three characteristics most often used in brief descriptions of individuals (the others are age and sex). They reasoned that natural selection would not have favoured the evolution of an instinct for using race as a classification, because for most of human history, humans almost never encountered members of other races. Tooby and Cosmides hypothesized that modern people use race as a proxy (rough-and-ready indicator) for coalition membership, since a better-than-random guess about "which side" another person is on will be helpful if one does not actually know in advance.

      Their colleague Robert Kurzban designed an experiment whose results appeared to support this hypothesis. Using the Memory confusion protocol, they presented subjects with pictures of individuals and sentences, allegedly spoken by these individuals, which presented two sides of a debate. The errors that the subjects made in recalling who said what indicated that they sometimes misattributed a statement to a speaker of the same race as the "correct" speaker, although they also sometimes misattributed a statement to a speaker "on the same side" as the "correct" speaker. In a second run of the experiment, the team also distinguished the "sides" in the debate by clothing of similar colors; and in this case the effect of racial similarity in causing mistakes almost vanished, being replaced by the color of their clothing. In other words, the first group of subjects, with no clues from clothing, used race as a visual guide to guessing who was on which side of the debate; the second group of subjects used the clothing color as their main visual clue, and the effect of race became very small. [

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      Human zoos 4 years ago

      Human zoos (called “People Shows”), were an important means of bolstering popular racism by connecting it to scientific racism: they were both objects of public curiosity and of anthropology and anthropometry.[73][74] Joice Heth, an African American slave, was displayed by P.T. Barnum in 1836, a few years after the exhibition of Saartjie Baartman, the "Hottentot Venus", in England. Such exhibitions became common in the New Imperialism period, and remained so until World War II. Carl Hagenbeck, inventor of the modern zoos, exhibited animals beside humans who were considered "savages".[75][76]

      Congolese pygmy Ota Benga was displayed in 1906 by eugenicist Madison Grant, head of the Bronx Zoo, as an attempt to illustrate the "missing link" between humans and orangutans: thus, racism was tied to Darwinism, creating a social Darwinist ideology that tried to ground itself in Darwin's scientific discoveries. The 1931 Paris Colonial Exhibition displayed Kanaks from New Caledonia.[77] A "Congolese village" was on display as late as 1958 at the Brussels' World Fair.

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      Polygenism and racial typologies 4 years ago

      Works such as Arthur de Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853–1855) may be considered as one of the first theorizations of this new racism, founded on an essentialist notion of race, which opposed the former racial discourse, of Boulainvilliers for example, which saw in races a fundamentally historical reality, which changed over time. Gobineau, thus, attempted to frame racism within the terms of biological differences among humans, giving it the legitimacy of biology. He was one of the first theorists to postulate polygenism, stating that there were, at the origins of the world, various discrete "races."

      Gobineau’s theories would be expanded, in France, by Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854–1936)'s typology of races, who published in 1899 The Aryan and his Social Role, in which he claimed that the white, "Aryan race", "dolichocephalic", was opposed to the "brachycephalic" race, of whom the "Jew" was the archetype. Vacher de Lapouge thus created a hierarchical classification of races, in which he identified the "Homo europaeus (Teutonic, Protestant, etc.), the "Homo alpinus" (Auvergnat, Turkish, etc.), and finally the "Homo mediterraneus" (Neapolitan, Andalus, etc.) He assimilated races and social classes, considering that the French upper class was a representation of the Homo europaeus, while the lower class represented the Homo alpinus. Applying Galton's eugenics to his theory of races, Vacher de Lapouge's "selectionism" aimed first at achieving the annihilation of trade unionists, considered to be a "degenerate"; second, creating types of man each destined to one end, in order to prevent any contestation of labour conditions. His "anthroposociology" thus aimed at blocking social conflict by establishing a fixed, hierarchical social order[71]

      The same year, William Z. Ripley used identical racial classification in The Races of Europe (1899), which would have a great influence in the United States. Other scientific authors include H.S. Chamberlain at the end of the 19th century (a British citizen who naturalized himself as German because of his admiration for the "Aryan race") and Madison Grant, a eugenicist and author of The Passing of the Great Race (1916). Madison Grant provided statistics for the Immigration Act of 1924, which severely restricted immigration of Jews, Slavs, and southern Europeans, who were subsequently unable to escape Nazi Germany.

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      Heredity and eugenics 4 years ago

      The first theory of eugenics was developed in 1869 by Francis Galton (1822–1911), who used the then popular concept of degeneration. He applied statistics to study human differences and the alleged "inheritance of intelligence", foreshadowing future uses of "intelligence testing" by the anthropometry school. Such theories were vividly described by the writer Émile Zola (1840–1902), who started publishing in 1871 a twenty-novel cycle, Les Rougon-Macquart, where he linked heredity to behavior. Thus, Zola described the high-born Rougons as those involved in politics (Son Excellence Eugène Rougon) and medicine (Le Docteur Pascal) and the low-born Macquarts as those fatally falling into alcoholism (L'Assommoir), prostitution (Nana), and homicide (La Bête humaine).

      During the rise of Nazism in Germany, some scientists in Western nations worked to debunk the regime's racial theories. A few argued against racist ideologies and discrimination, even if they believed in the alleged existence of biological races. However, in the fields of anthropology and biology, these were minority positions until the mid-20th century.[70] According to the 1950 UNESCO statement, The Race Question, an international project to debunk racist theories had been attempted in the mid-1930s. However, this project had been abandoned. Thus, in 1950, UNESCO declared that it had resumed:

      up again, after a lapse of fifteen years, a project that the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation has wished to carry through but that it had to abandon in deference to the appeasement policy of the pre-war period. The race question had become one of the pivots of Nazi ideology and policy. Masaryk and Beneš took the initiative of calling for a conference to re-establish in the minds and consciences of men everywhere the truth about race... Nazi propaganda was able to continue its baleful work unopposed by the authority of an international organisation.

      The Third Reich's racial policies, its eugenics programs and the extermination of Jews in the Holocaust, as well as Romani people in the Porrajmos (the Romani Holocaust) and others minorities led to a change in opinions about scientific research into race after the war. Changes within scientific disciplines, such as the rise of the Boasian school of anthropology in the United States contributed to this shift. These theories were strongly denounced in the 1950 UNESCO statement, signed by internationally renowned scholars, and titled The Race Question.

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      Scientific Variant 4 years ago

      At the end of the 19th century, proponents of scientific racism intertwined themselves with eugenics discourses of "degeneration of the race" and "blood heredity." Henceforth, scientific racist discourses could be defined as the combination of polygenism, unilinealism, social Darwinism and eugenism. They found their scientific legitimacy on physical anthropology, anthropometry, craniometry, phrenology, physiognomy, and others now discredited disciplines in order to formulate racist prejudices.

      Before being disqualified in the 20th century by the American school of cultural anthropology (Franz Boas, etc.), the British school of social anthropology (Bronisław Malinowski, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, etc.), the French school of ethnology (Claude Lévi-Strauss, etc.), as well as the discovery of the neo-Darwinian synthesis, such sciences, in particular anthropometry, were used to deduce behaviours and psychological characteristics from outward, physical appearances.

      The neo-Darwinian synthesis, first developed in the 1930s, eventually led to a gene-centered view of evolution in the 1960s. According to the Human Genome Project, the most complete mapping of human DNA to date indicates that there is no clear genetic basis to racial groups. While some genes are more common in certain populations, there are no genes that exist in all members of one population and no members of any other.[

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      Scientific variants 4 years ago

      The modern biological definition of race developed in the 19th century with scientific racist theories. The term scientific racism refers to the use of science to justify and support racist beliefs, which goes back to the early 18th century, though it gained most of its influence in the mid-19th century, during the New Imperialism period. Also known as academic racism, such theories first needed to overcome the Church’s resistance to positivist accounts of history and its support of monogenism, the concept that all human beings were originated from the same ancestors, in accordance with creationist accounts of history.

      These racist theories put forth on scientific hypothesis were combined with unilineal theories of social progress, which postulated the superiority of the European civilization over the rest of the world. Furthermore, they frequently made use of the idea of "survival of the fittest", a term coined by Herbert Spencer in 1864, associated with ideas of competition, which were named social Darwinism in the 1940s. Charles Darwin himself opposed the idea of rigid racial differences in The Descent of Man (1871) in which he argued that humans were all of one species, sharing common descent. He recognised racial differences as varieties of humanity, and emphasised the close similarities between people of all races in mental faculties, tastes, dispositions and habits, while still contrasting the culture of the "lowest savages" with European civilization.

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      Academic Variants 4 years ago

      Fewer than 30 years before Nazi Germany instigated World War II, the Austrian, Otto Weininger, claimed: “A genius has perhaps scarcely ever appeared amongst the negroes, and the standard of their morality is almost universally so low that it is beginning to be acknowledged in America that their emancipation was an act of imprudence” (Sex and Character, New York: G.P. Putnam, 1906, p. 302).

      The German conservative, Oswald Spengler, remarked on what he perceived as the culturally degrading influence of Africans in modern Western culture: in The Hour of Decision Spengler denounced "the 'happy ending' of an empty existence, the boredom of which has brought to jazz music and Negro dancing to perform the Death March for a great Culture" (The Hour of Decision, pp. 227–228). During the Nazi era, German scientists rearranged academia to support claims of a grand "Aryan" agent behind the splendors of all human civilizations, including India and Ancient Egypt.[

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      Academic Variants 4 years ago

      Owen 'Alik Shahadah comments on this racism by stating: "Historically Africans are made to sway like leaves on the wind, impervious and indifferent to any form of civilization, a people absent from scientific discovery, philosophy or the higher arts. We are left to believe that almost nothing can come out of Africa, other than raw material."[64]

      Scottish philosopher and economist David Hume said, "I am apt to suspect the Negroes to be naturally inferior to the Whites. There scarcely ever was a civilised nation of that complexion, nor even any individual, eminent either in action or in speculation. No ingenious manufacture among them, no arts, no sciences."[65] German philosopher Immanuel Kant stated: "The yellow Indians do have a meagre talent. The Negroes are far below them, and at the lowest point are a part of the American people."[66]

      In the 19th century, the German philosopher, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, declared that "Africa is no historical part of the world." Hegel further claimed that blacks had no "sense of personality; their spirit sleeps, remains sunk in itself, makes no advance, and thus parallels the compact, undifferentiated mass of the African continent" (On Blackness Without Blacks: Essays on the Image of the Black in Germany, Boston: C.W. Hall, 1982, p. 94).

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      Ethnic Conflicts 4 years ago

      The idea of slavery as an "equal-opportunity employer" was denounced with the introduction of Christian theory in the West. Maintaining that Africans were "subhuman" was the only loophole in the then accepted law that "men are created equal" that would allow for the sustenance of the Triangular Trade. New peoples in the Americas, possible slaves, were encountered, fought, and ultimately subdued, but, then, due to European diseases, their populations drastically decreased. Through both influences, theories about "race" developed, and these helped many to justify the differences in position and treatment of people whom they categorized as belonging to different races (see Eric Wolf's Europe and the People without History).

      Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda argued that, during the Valladolid controversy in the middle of the 16th century, the Native Americans were natural slaves because they had no souls. In Asia, the Chinese and Japanese Empires were both strong colonial powers, with the Chinese making colonies and vassal states of much of East Asia throughout history, and the Japanese doing the same in the 19th–20th centuries. In both cases, the Asian imperial powers believed they were ethnically and racially preferenced too.

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      Ethnic Conflicts 4 years ago

      Notions of race and racism often have played central roles in such ethnic conflicts. Throughout history, when an adversary is identified as “other” based on notions of race or ethnicity (in particular when “other” is construed to mean “inferior”), the means employed by the self-presumed “superior” party to appropriate territory, human chattel, or material wealth often have been more ruthless, more brutal, and less constrained by moral or ethical considerations. According to historian Daniel Richter, Pontiac's Rebellion saw the emergence on both sides of the conflict of "the novel idea that all Native people were 'Indians,' that all Euro-Americans were 'Whites,' and that all on one side must unite to destroy the other." (Richter, Facing East from Indian Country, p. 208) Basil Davidson insists in his documentary, Africa: Different but Equal, that racism, in fact, only just recently surfaced—as late as the 19th century, due to the need for a justification for slavery in the Americas.

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      Ethnic conflicts 4 years ago

      Debates over the origins of racism often suffer from a lack of clarity over the term. Many use the term "racism" to refer to more general phenomena, such as xenophobia and ethnocentrism, although scholars attempt to clearly distinguish those phenomena from racism as an ideology or from scientific racism, which has little to do with ordinary xenophobia. Others conflate recent forms of racism with earlier forms of ethnic and national conflict. In most cases, ethno-national conflict seems to owe itself to conflict over land and strategic resources. In some cases, ethnicity and nationalism were harnessed to rally combatants in wars between great religious empires (for example, the Muslim Turks and the Catholic Austro-Hungarians).

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      Ethnic Nationalism 4 years ago

      Such racist discourses, combined with nationalism, were not, however, limited to pan-Germanism. In France, the transition from Republican, liberal nationalism, to ethnic nationalism, which made nationalism a characteristic of far-right movements in France, took place during the Dreyfus Affair at the end of the 19th century. During several years, a nation-wide crisis affected French society, concerning the alleged treason of Alfred Dreyfus, a French Jewish military officer. The country polarized itself into two opposite camps, one represented by Émile Zola, who wrote J'accuse in defense of Alfred Dreyfus, and the other represented by the nationalist poet, Maurice Barrès (1862–1923), one of the founders of the ethnic nationalist discourse in France.[63] At the same time, Charles Maurras (1868–1952), founder of the monarchist Action française movement, theorized the "anti-France," composed of the "four confederate states of Protestants, Jews, Freemasons and foreigners" (his actual word for the latter being the pejorative métèques)). Indeed, to him the first three were all “internal foreigners”, who threatened the ethnic unity of the French people.

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      Ethnic Nationalism 4 years ago

      Ethnic nationalism blended with scientific racist discourses, as well as with "continental imperialist" (Hannah Arendt, 1951[62]) discourses, for example in the pan-Germanism discourses, which postulated the racial superiority of the German Volk. The Pan-German League (Alldeutscher Verband), created in 1891, promoted German imperialism, "racial hygiene" and was opposed to intermarriage with Jews. Another popular current, the Völkisch movement, was also an important proponent of the German ethnic nationalist discourse, which combined with modern antisemitism. Members of the Völkisch movement, in particular the Thule Society, would participate in the founding of the German Workers' Party (DAP) in Munich in 1918, the predecessor of the NSDAP Nazi party. Pan-Germanism and played a decisive role in the interwar period of the 1920s–1930s.[62]

      These currents began to associate the idea of the nation with the biological concept of a "master race" (often the "Aryan race" or "Nordic race") issued from the scientific racist discourse. They conflated nationalities with ethnic groups, called "races", in a radical distinction from previous racial discourses that posited the existence of a "race struggle" inside the nation and the state itself. Furthermore, they believed that political boundaries should mirror these alleged racial and ethnic groups, thus justifying ethnic cleansing in order to achieve "racial purity" and also to achieve ethnic homogeneity in the nation-state.

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      Ideology 4 years ago

      According to this view, culture is the physical manifestation created by ethnic groupings, as such fully determined by racial characteristics. Culture and race became considered intertwined and dependent upon each other, sometimes even to the extent of including nationality or language to the set of definition. Pureness of race tended to be related to rather superficial characteristics that were easily addressed and advertised, such as blondness. Racial qualities tended to be related to nationality and language rather than the actual geographic distribution of racial characteristics. In the case of Nordicism, the denomination "Germanic" became virtually equivalent to superiority of race.

      Bolstered by some nationalist and ethnocentric values and achievements of choice, this concept of racial superiority evolved to distinguish from other cultures, that were considered inferior or impure. This emphasis on culture corresponds to the modern mainstream definition of racism: "Racism does not originate from the existence of ‘races’. It creates them through a process of social division into categories: anybody can be racialised, independently of their somatic, cultural, religious differences."

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      Ideology 4 years ago

      It was already noted by DuBois that, in making the difference between races, it is not race that we think about, but culture: “...a common history, common laws and religion, similar habits of thought and a conscious striving together for certain ideals of life”.[54] Late 19th century nationalists were the first to embrace contemporary discourses on "race", ethnicity and "survival of the fittest" to shape new nationalist doctrines. Ultimately, race came to represent not only the most important traits of the human body, but was also regarded as decisively shaping the character and personality of the nation.

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      Ideology 4 years ago

      As an ideology, racism existed during the 19th century as "scientific racism", which attempted to provide a racial classification of humanity.[53] Although such racist ideologies have been widely discredited after World War II and the Holocaust, racism and racial discrimination have remained widespread around the world. Some examples of this in present day are statistics including, but not limited to, the racial breakdown of the prison population versus the national population, physical abilities and mental ability statistics, and other data gathered by scientific groups. While these statistics may be accurate, and can show trends, it's inappropriate in most countries to assume that because a particular race has a high crime or low literacy rate, that the entire race of people are inherent criminals, or inherently unintelligent.

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      Declarations and international law against racial discrimination 4 years ago

      The United Nations use the definition of racial discrimination laid out in the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, adopted in 1966:

      … any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, color, descent, or national or ethnic origin that has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.(Part 1 of Article 1 of the U.N. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination)[51]

      In 2001, the European Union explicitly banned racism, along with many other forms of social discrimination, in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, the legal effect of which, if any, would necessarily be limited to Institutions of the European Union: "Article 21 of the charter prohibits discrimination on any ground such as race, color, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, disability, age or sexual orientation and also discrimination on the grounds of nationality.

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      Declarations and international law against racial discrimination 4 years ago

      In 1919, a proposal to include a racial equality provision in the Covenant of the League of Nations was supported by a majority, but not adopted in the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. In 1943, Japan and its allies declared work for the abolition of racial discrimination to be their aim at the Greater East Asia Conference.[48] Article 1 of the 1945 UN Charter includes "promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race" as UN purpose.

      An anti-discrimination poster in a Hong Kong subway station, 2005

      In 1950, UNESCO suggested in The Race Question —a statement signed by 21 scholars such as Ashley Montagu, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Gunnar Myrdal, Julian Huxley, etc. — to "drop the term race altogether and instead speak of ethnic groups". The statement condemned scientific racism theories that had played a role in the Holocaust. It aimed both at debunking scientific racist theories, by popularizing modern knowledge concerning "the race question," and morally condemned racism as contrary to the philosophy of the Enlightenment and its assumption of equal rights for all. Along with Myrdal's An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (1944), The Race Question influenced the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court desegregation decision in "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka".[49] Also in 1950, the European Convention on Human Rights was adopted, widely used on racial discrimination issues

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      Economic 4 years ago

      During the Spanish colonial period, Spaniards developed a complex caste system based on race, which was used for social control and which also determined a person’s importance in society.[45] While many Latin American countries have long since rendered the system officially illegal through legislation, usually at the time of their independence, prejudice based on degrees of perceived racial distance from European ancestry combined with one’s socioeconomic status remain, an echo of the colonial caste system. Almost uniformly, people who are darker-skinned and of indigenous descent make up the peasantry and working classes, while lighter-skinned, Spanish-descent Latin Americans are in the ruling elite.[

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      Economic 4 years ago

      For decades, African American farmers said they were unjustly being denied farm loans or subjected to longer waits for loan approval because of racism,[42] and accused the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) of not responding to their complaints.[43] In 2011, Bank of America agreed to pay $335 million to settle a federal government claim that its mortgage division, Countrywide Financial, discriminated against black and Hispanic homebuyers.[27] In a 2011 news story, Investor's Business Daily wrote, "Before the mortgage crisis, Attorney General Janet Reno accused banks of racism for failing to market mortgages to poor minorities with weak credit. Fear of prosecution set off a stampede of risky inner-city lending that led, in part, to today's record home foreclosures. Now Reno's deputy — current Attorney General Eric Holder — is prosecuting banks for doing too well what he and Reno ordered them to do before the crisis: "targeting of minority communities" for subprime and other high-cost loans."

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      Economic 4 years ago

      Although a capitalist economy would avoid discrimination in order to avoid extra cost, this can be avoided in other ways. A capitalist company, for example, may use racist hiring policies as it deviates towards the “cultural norm”. For example, in a predominantly white society, hiring a person of colour into a position of management may then cause disputes, and damage communications between other employers. Thus, the company would be economically put in a deficit because of the discrimination of other companies, as they invoke discrimination and isolate that company. Although this may be a radical, over exaggerated point of view, it portrays how pervasive racism is and how a company may sometimes deviate towards racist hiring policies in order to not be isolated, thus preventing the company from going into an economic deficit. (Burton 2009:1)

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      Economic 4 years ago

      A hypothesis embraced by classical economists is that competition in a capitalist economy decreases the impact of discrimination. The thinking behind the hypothesis is that discrimination imposes a cost on the employer, and thus a profit-driven employer will avoid racist hiring policies.

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      Economic 4 years ago

      Historical economic or social disparity is alleged to be a form of discrimination caused by past racism and historical reasons, affecting the present generation through deficits in the formal education and kinds of preparation in previous generation, and through primarily unconscious racist attitudes and actions on members of the general population.

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      Institutional 4 years ago

      Institutional racism (also known as structural racism, state racism or systemic racism) is racial discrimination by governments, corporations, religions, or educational institutions or other large organizations with the power to influence the lives of many individuals. Stokely Carmichael is credited for coining the phrase institutional racism in the late 1960s. He defined the term as “the collective failure of an organization to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin”.[40]

      Maulana Karenga argued that racism constituted the destruction of culture, language, religion and human possibility, and that the effects of racism were “the morally monstrous destruction of human possibility involved redefining African humanity to the world, poisoning past, present and future relations with others who only know us through this stereotyping and thus damaging the truly human relations among peoples.

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      Racial discrimination 4 years ago

      Racial discrimination refers to the separation of people through a process of social division into categories not necessarily related to races for purposes of differential treatment. Racial segregation policies may formalize it, but it is also often exerted without being legalized. Researchers Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, at the University of Chicago and MIT found in a 2004 study that there was widespread discrimination in the workplace against job applicants whose names were merely perceived as “sounding black”. These applicants were 50% less likely than candidates perceived as having “white-sounding names” to receive callbacks for interviews. Devah Pager, a sociologist at Princeton University, sent matched pairs of applicants to apply for jobs in Milwaukee and New York City, finding that black applicants received callbacks or job offers at half the rate of equally qualified whites.[35][36] In contrast, institutions and courts have upheld discrimination against whites when it is done to promote a diverse work or educational environment, even when it was shown to be to the detriment of qualified applicants.[37][38] The researchers view these results as strong evidence of unconscious biases rooted in the United States' long history of discrimination (e.g., Jim Crow laws, etc.)[

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      Segregationism 4 years ago

      Racial segregation is the separation of humans into racial groups in daily life. It may apply to activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a bath room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home.[34] Segregation is generally outlawed, but may exist through social norms, even when there is no strong individual preference for it, as suggested by Thomas Schelling's models of segregation and subsequent work.

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      Supremacism 4 years ago

      Centuries of European colonialism of the Americas, Africa and Asia was excused by white supremacist attitudes.[31] During the early 20th century, the phrase "The White Man's Burden" was widely used to justify imperialist policy as a noble enterprise.

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      Xenophobia 4 years ago

      Dictionary definitions of xenophobia include: intense or irrational dislike or fear of people from other countries (Oxford Dictionaries),[28] unreasonable fear and hatred of strangers or foreigners or of anything that is strange or foreign (Merriam-Webster)[29] The Dictionary of Psychology defines it as "a fear of strangers"

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      Anonymous 4 years ago

      Some sociologists have also pointed out, with reference to the USA and elsewhere, that forms of racism have in many instances mutated from more blatant expressions hereof into more covert kinds (albeit that blatant forms of hatred and discrimination still endure). The “newer” (more hidden and less easily detectable) forms of racism—which can be considered as embedded in social processes and structures—are more difficult to explore as well as challenge. It has been suggested that, while in many countries overt and explicit racism has become increasingly taboo, even in those who display egalitarian explicit attitudes, an implicit or aversive racism is still maintained subconsciously.

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      Anonymous 4 years ago

      Some sociologists have defined racism as a system of group privilege. In Portraits of White Racism, David Wellman has defined racism as “culturally sanctioned beliefs, which, regardless of intentions involved, defend the advantages whites have because of the subordinated position of racial minorities”.[23] Sociologists Noël A. Cazenave and Darlene Alvarez Maddern define racism as “...a highly organized system of 'race'-based group privilege that operates at every level of society and is held together by a sophisticated ideology of color/'race' supremacy. Sellers and Shelton (2003) found that a relationship between racial discrimination and emotional distress was moderated by racial ideology and public regard beliefs. That is, racial centrality appears to promote the degree of discrimination African American young adults perceive whereas racial ideology may buffer the detrimental emotional effects of that discrimination. Racist systems include, but cannot be reduced to, racial bigotry,”.[24] Sociologist and former American Sociological Association president Joe Feagin argues that the United States can be characterized as a "total racist society"[25]

      Police harassment and brutality directed at black men, women, and children are as old as American society, dating back to the days of slavery and Jim Crow segregation. Such police actions across the nation today reveal important aspects of . . . the commonplace discriminatory practices of individual whites . . . [and] white dominated institutions that allow or encourage such practices.."

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      Racism 4 years ago

      The UN does not define “racism”; however, it does define “racial discrimination”: According to the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination,

      the term "racial discrimination" shall mean any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference based on race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin that has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.[20]

      This definition does not make any difference between discrimination based on ethnicity and race, in part because the distinction between the two remains debatable among anthropologists.[21] Similarly, in British law the phrase racial group means "any group of people who are defined by reference to their race, colour, nationality (including citizenship) or ethnic or national origin"

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      Racism 4 years ago

      As a word, racism is an “-ism”, a belief that can be described by a word ending in the suffix -ism, pertaining to race. As its etymology would suggest, its usage is relatively recent and as such its definition is not entirely settled. The Oxford English Dictionary defines racism as the “belief that all members of each race possess characteristics, abilities, or qualities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races” and the expression of such prejudice,[17][18] while the Merriam-Webster's Dictionary defines it as a belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority or inferiority of a particular racial group, and alternatively that it is also the prejudice based on such a belief.[19] The Macquarie Dictionary defines racism as: "the belief that human races have distinctive characteristics which determine their respective cultures, usually involving the idea that one’s own race is superior and has the right to rule or dominate others."

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      Racism 4 years ago

      acism involves the belief in racial differences, which acts as a justification for non-equal treatment (which some regard as "discrimination") of members of that race.[11] The term is commonly used negatively and is usually associated with race-based prejudice, violence, dislike, discrimination, or oppression, the term can also have varying and contested definitions. Racialism is a related term, sometimes intended to avoid these negative meanings.

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      Racism 4 years ago

      However, this distribution of meanings between the two terms used to be precisely inverse at the time they were coined: The Oxford English Dictionary defined “racialism” as “belief in the superiority of a particular race” and gives a 1907 quote as the first recorded use. The shortened term “racism” did not appear in the English language until the 1930s.[15][16] It was first defined by the OED as “[t]he theory that distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by race”, which gives 1936 as the first recorded use. Additionally, the OED records racism as a synonym of racialism: "belief in the superiority of a particular race". By the end of World War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations former associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination, racial supremacism and a harmful intent. (The term “race hatred” had also been used by sociologist Frederick Hertz in the late 1920s.)

      Modeled on the term “racism”, a large number of pejorative -ism terms have been created to describe various types of prejudice: sexism, ageism, ableism, speciesism, etc. Related concepts are antisemitism, chauvinism and homophobia (which in turn has led to terms such as Islamophobia)

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      Racism 4 years ago

      Those who subscribe to the proposition that there are inherent distinctions among people that can be ascribed to membership in a racial group (and who may use this to justify differential treatment of such groups) tend to describe themselves using the term “racialism” rather than “racism”, to avoid the negative connotations of the latter word. “Racialism” is assumed to be more value-neutral terminology, and more appropriate for (scientifically) objective communication or analysis.

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      Racism 4 years ago

      In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the simple belief that human populations are divided into separate races.[10] This was often used to justify the belief that some races were inferior to others, and that differential treatment was consequently justified.[11][12][13] Such theories are generally termed scientific racism. When the practice of treating certain groups preferentially, or denying rights or benefits to certain groups, based on racial characteristics is institutionalized, it is termed “institutional racism”.

      Nowadays, most biologists, anthropologists, and sociologists reject a simple taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and/or empirically verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity, or a history of endogamy.

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      Anonymous 4 years ago

      In politics, racism is commonly located on the far right due to the far right’s common association with nativism, racism, and xenophobia.[7] In history, racism has been a major part of the political and ideological underpinning of genocides such as The Holocaust, but also in colonial contexts such as the rubber booms in South America and the Congo, and in the European conquest of the Americas and colonization of Africa, Asia and Australia. It was also a driving force behind the transatlantic slave trade, and behind states based on racial segregation such as the USA in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and South Africa under apartheid.[8] Practices and ideologies of racism are universally condemned by the United Nations in the Declaration of Human Rights

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      Anonymous 4 years ago

      The exact definition of racism is controversial both because there is little scholarly agreement about the meaning of the concept "race", and because there is also little agreement about what does and doesn't constitute discrimination.[3] Some definitions would have it that any assumption that a person's behavior would be influenced by their racial categorization is racist, regardless of whether the action is intentionally harmful or pejorative. Other definitions only include consciously malignant forms of discrimination.[4] Among the questions about how to define racism are the question of whether to include forms of discrimination that are unintentional, such as making assumptions about preferences or abilities of others based on racial stereotypes, whether to include symbolic or institutionalized forms of discrimination such as the circulation of ethnic stereotypes through the media, and whether to include the socio-political dynamics of social stratification that sometimes have a racial component. Some definitions of racism also include discriminatory behaviors and beliefs based on cultural, national, ethnic, caste, or religious stereotypes.[

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      Show racism the red card 4 years ago

      Show Racism the Red Card is an anti-racism charity, which was established in January 1996. The aim of our organisation is to produce anti-racist educational resources, which harness the high profile of professional footballers to combat racism.

      Our educational materials are very accessible and have been highly successful over many years. Footballers are role models for young people who will listen to them and learn from them. We have added to the range and quality of our resources over the years, but the central resource remains our Show Racism the Red Card film, which features professional footballers.

      The organisation has built up a pool of professional footballers as patrons and one of the highlights of our work remains the interaction of the players with young people at our events at Football Clubs. In Scotland, we also have the job of trying to combat racism in football.

      The campaign has expanded from our North East of England base and now has offices in the South East of England, Cardiff and Glasgow. We have also expanded our base of role models, to work with actors and other professional sports people. Our staff and management committee have developed a three-year business plan and strategic vision. As part of our discussions we have reconfirmed our mission statement.

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      Show racism the red card 4 years ago

      Show Racism The Red Card is an anti-racist educational charity. We aim to combat racism through enabling role models, who are predominately but not exclusively footballers, to present an anti-racist message to young people and others.

      Show Racism The Red Card acknowledges that racism changes, as do the experiences of Black and Minority Ethnic communities in the UK. Our message and activities therefore need to be able to respond to such changes as and when appropriate.

      We achieve this through:

      Producing educational resources

      Developing activities to encourage people, including young people, to challenge racism

      In parts of the UK, challenging racism in the game of football and other sports.

    • Funom Makama 3 profile image
      Author

      Funom Theophilus Makama 4 years ago from Europe

      Thanks a lot Beth100

    • Beth100 profile image

      Beth100 4 years ago from Canada

      Racism stems from ignorance, refusing to learn differently, arrogance of not wanting to change and living in a silo.

      Thank you for sharing your poem.

    • Funom Makama 3 profile image
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      Funom Theophilus Makama 4 years ago from Europe

      Thanks a lot everythingdazzles and sherrituck

    • sherrituck profile image

      Sherri Tuck 4 years ago from Virginia

      So much truth in these statements. Well said my friend.

    • everythingdazzles profile image

      Janelle 4 years ago from Houston

      Wonderful and well thought out poem.

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      Deborah Brooks Langford 4 years ago from Brownsville,TX

      what a wonderful poem everyone needs to read this.. It will touch souls.. many blessings for writing this

      sharing

      Debbie

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      PallaviGaurav 4 years ago from South Africa.

      racism is terrible indeed...I am deeply hurt by seeing the intense apartheid...as far as this hub is concerned it has turned me into tears..could have possible voted up for this double times !!

    • Funom Makama 3 profile image
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      Funom Theophilus Makama 4 years ago from Europe

      Thanks a lot guys.... Its nice to know this Poem reached ur hearts

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      Shauna L Bowling 4 years ago from Central Florida

      I just have one word for this poem: AMEN!

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      Angela Blair 4 years ago from Central Texas

      In depth and on target poetry -- thank you my friend. Best/Sis

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      Ruby Jean Fuller 4 years ago from Southern Illinois

      I join with you in fighting racism. I like your word choice for this piece. Voted up..Cheers

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      Twilight Lawns 4 years ago from Norbury-sur-Mer, Surrey, England. U.K.

      Lovely sentiments, beautifully expressed. I think we are singing from the same hymnsheet, my friend.