ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Secondary Victimization of Rape In Pakistan

Updated on November 11, 2018
Zoya Dawar Agha profile image

Zoya is a fresh graduate from Forman Christian College/University and has been a student of psychology for six years.

Secondary Victimization

Secondary victimization, also known as, secondary rape is a term used for the negative experiences faced by rape victims when they seek help from legal, medical, and mental health systems and are denied for it. Campbell’s (1999) research was conducted to observe whether mental health professionals believed that the victims are ‘re-raped’ in these interactions. They reported that some community professionals practice behaviours that are crucial to the victim’s psychological well-being. This kind of blaming can very seriously ruin the coping process and lead to a secondary victimization of the victim.

'Promiscuous' 'Immoral'

Sadly, police and the prosecutor are busy for winning the case which leaves the victim ignored. Instead, victims are blamed for the assault and denied of help. Mental health professionals also revealed that this can enhance the trauma and is usually taken less seriously in you’re a minority, for example, of colour in the US. Stereotypes held for these women as ‘promiscuous’ and ‘immoral’ or if the women are poor (Campbell, 1999). Other reasons for secondary victimization of rape victims is when the offense deviates from the popular notion by which it is expected to occur. For example, if the offense takes place at the victims house, it is questioned whether the victim let the assailant access their house themselves? These notions are treated with mistrust and doubt, eventually questioning if the victim was even raped or was it consensual. Another cause focused upon the self-presentation of victims as either emotional or numb. People who have emotional self-presentation are less likely to be secondary victimized but people who have numb self-presentation are more likely to be secondary victimized that is, again, because of the way pain or trauma is stereotyped.

The Zainab Case

Such a thinking resides in Pakistani culture as well. Aljazeera conducted an interview with Fouzia Saeed (2018) who spoke about how victim blaming in Pakistan needs to come to an end. Recently, a lot of child sexual abuse cases have been reported in Kasur. One of them was discussed in this interview. She explained how a seven year old girl called Zainab was recently raped and murdered. Society responded by asking questions like “where were her parents? Why were they not careful?”

Ahrens (2006) conducted a study which focused on Rape Victims that are silenced by the negative reactions of people on a formal and informal support level. For formal support, it has been reported how the police laughed at a victim when she reported her case. It also explained how the formal support system (specially, the legal and medical system) fails to satisfy clients after their disclosure of rape. Solutions to this problem are to train support providers ineffective ways of dealing with victims of assault and educating people about sexual assault. Trainers need to be taught how to not negatively respond to the victim, specially, after disclosure of the event. Campbell (1999) also talked about how mental health professionals are need further training to deal with patients of trauma effectively and also by advocating changes in the other social systems such as collaborating with local rape crisis centers to improve advocacy efforts. Moreover, IHC has passed a notice to protect the confidentiality of rape victims identities to further stop secondary victimization of these people (“Rape victims: IHC issues notices to ministries, 9th May 19, 2018”). Fouzia Saeed (2018) also talks about how there is a necessity for abandoning the myths people believe in, such as, if a woman is beaten by her husband, she must have had a habit of talking back to people. These thoughts give more power to men and they justify the violence, providing a secondary victimization of the victim. These myths need to be broken and we need to stop assuming why the victim why she was raped.

These determinants cannot be generalized in an Eastern society, however, the fact that poor women might be more victimized by society can be understood in an ea

for example Ahmedis, who have no rights for even freedom of speech, instead they worry about survival.

The Myths of Rape

The root of this issue lies with the myths people associate with rape, specially those that further blame the victim for it. Fouzia Saeed (2018) supports this idea when she reported that a parallel advancement in law and order is necessary and only making children and women aware is not enough. Awareness can make people understand what rape is and how the victims might be secondary victimized to the myths people hold about society. But people need to start breaking those myths first. There should be a law and order to implement that change in thinking, specially, in Pakistan. The IHC notice to protect the identity of rape victim is causing secondary victimization more than it is prohibiting it. Keeping their identity disclosed attributes a level of shame they should feel for being a victim of a crime that was against their will. Ahrens (2006) talks about how disclosure of rape has made victims feel more victimized but prohibiting them from disclosing what they went through makes it much worse for them and further alienates them from the society. It also violates their freedom of speech against the heinous crime and further supports the stigmatization and myths of rape.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://maven.io/company/pages/privacy

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)