Immigration as a threat to European security
Immigration is a phenomenon that affects obviously the form of the modern world. On a global scale it can be seen a stronger relation between human displacement trends and globalization. It was noted mainly as a result of economic factors, which among all the other conditions that determine migration, play the most important role. People lives under constant threat. Once the threat was almost exclusively natural, but with the development of civilization began to appear new risks. Current world events stimulate young researchers in making analysis and reflection on contemporary political reality. Migration is one of those phenomena that affects specifically the change in the world around and affect political, economic and legal activities.
In Europe, migration has increased steadily after the end of World War II. Immigration is an essential aspect of global demographic development. The movement of people across national borders is a special different for all phases of human evolution and in particular in the last two centuries, when practically became an everyday occurrence.
The effects of migration are visible in many areas of life. These effects have positive and negative character, thus becoming a source of conflict across Europe. On the one hand, the migration of the population has a significant impact on the sustainability of the labor market, changing economic and social status of society, often accompanied by increased education and professional preparation. On the other hand - a massive influx of immigrants, could result in increased unemployment, increased pressure on social assistance, etc. Immigration also affects the demographic and social structure, population distribution and change its ethnic composition and leads to strained relations between the countries, and even in international instability.For this reason, immigration has begun to be seen as a challenge and a threat of national and international security, especially after the collapse of the bipolar system, the concept of "security" does not equate to military security, but also includes other types, such as economic security, ecological, political, demographic and more.
The beginning of XXI century is dotted with a number of transformations in the social, cultural, economic, political, environmental area etc. These changes have brought about a number of problems and risks. Undoubtedly, the most important factor, which has a direct impact on this transformation, the process of globalization is constantly growing, which is changing international reality and the source of much antagonism. One of the manifestations of the most visible effects of this process is directly related to the freedom and the extension of free movement of international goods and population, as a result of a constant technological and transport progress in order to expand the development of infrastructure globally.
With the development of transport and infrastructure worldwide, the cost of transport of goods, information and travel has fallen drastically. Undoubtedly, this has a positive impact in the international arena, contributing to an overall increase in global economic growth.
However, the phenomenon has also reported a negative connotation. As a result, geographical distance and national borders, unfortunately, could not prevent the spread of all types of threats. Therefore, representatives of the anti globalists and nationalists always emphasize the negative effects of global transformation, claiming that they pose a threat to the continuity of the country, destroying the identity, culture and regional tradition. The phenomenon of globalization and the free movement of information, goods, and especially of individuals, contribute directly to the sharp rise of the migration process. It displayed a phenomenon called "death of geography", in which people do not identify themselves with the area of origin, but with the state that guarantees them a decent life.
Migration processes which should provide guarantees for the improvement of living, often become the cause of problems and new security threats. Besides obviously beneficial aspects, there are negative consequences for security, such as:
⦁ The loss of national identity,
⦁ Economic threats,
⦁ The threat of civilization and culture,
⦁ International terrorism and the spread of organized crime.
Approved by the European Union member states, legal economic, political and social migration brings a direct collision of different cultural views and identitities. Unfortunately, due to the large influx of migrants, one of the biggest threats to security in Europe is the problem of possible civilization and identity conflicts. The formation of multicultural immigrant communities often creates a favorable platform for all kinds of criminal and terrorist groups.The globalization of information, open borders, free movement of goods, services and above all the people are favorable conditions that create ground for illegal immigration.This phenomenon is widely used by terrorist organizations. Illegal migration is an attractive new opportunity for action against organized crime. It can operate at many levels of society and takes a variety of illegal forms. Immigration is closely related to the falsification of documents, or even smuggling. Another current problem is the smuggling of weapons, drugs, toxic substances that can form the basis for the production of biological and chemical weapons as well as illegal adoption of children.
The political consequences of migration can also include the need for a common policy in the field of migration. This situation has forced European governments to cooperate in various policy areas and not only. As a result of the displacement of people from one place to the other, the states are keen to collaborate with each other, not only in the economic sphere. The states due to the intense of the relationships of its citizens should work together to take measures to facilitate an effective fiscal , education or social policy. Thanks to immigrants increased also the economies interdependence of these countries, especially through the development of transport and communication between them. This increases significantly the need for cooperation on matters of security and mutual recognition of the population.
Immigration may affect positively and negatively the economic, social, cultural and even the political life in a given country. In order not to destroy the social peace, immigration must be accompanied by successful integration into the societies of the host countries. They, in turn, should be tolerant enough for the existence of other ethnicities , culture and the traditions they bring with them. Migration is at the forefront of European policy agenda. In recent years it has become an aspect of European relations with the outside world. Defined as a strategic priority which affects stability in Europe, management of migration is considered an issue that needs coordination and cooperation on many levels and with the intervention of many national and international actors. Migration policy and the importance of the phenomenon should be assessed and monitored continuously.