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A Scientific Interpretation Of Ghosts, ESP, And Other Paranormal Mysteries
Multiple Spectrums of Reality
(*Please refer to the Glossary at the end of the article for help with bold, italicized terms.)
The following list includes various levels of observation in the electromagnetic spectrum. Only one is observable with the naked eye.
1) Radio continuum: from hot, electrically charged gas.
2) Atomic hydrogen (radio) emissions: from warm gas.
3) Molecular hydrogen (microwave): lies in cold clouds where stars form.
4) Infrared (far): highlights dust grains.
5) Infrared (near): mostly from low-mass stars.
6) Visible: light from Sun-like stars.
7) Ultraviolet: dust-obscured light between X-rays and the visible spectrum.
8) X-rays: from energized gas.
9) Gamma rays: appear where high-speed subatomic particles collide with interstellar hydrogen.
(Refer to Figure 8.1 for a diagram.)
Electromagnetic waves travel through space in the form of light, radio, infrared, ultraviolet, X, and gamma rays. Their frequency determines the wavelength at which they travel through the cosmos. The higher the oscillation, the faster they move.
According to the Doppler effect, advancing objects exhibit electromagnetic spectra shifted more toward the red. Such objects are, in effect, red-shifted. Receding objects have their spectra shifted more toward the blue, or are blue-shifted.
Doppler also applies to sound waves. The pitch of an ambulance siren will change as it approaches someone and again as it recedes. The closer it is, the faster the pitch, or frequency of wave crests. The farther away it is, the lower the pitch since the wave crests are farther apart. Wave crests become shorter as the ambulance approaches and longer as it recedes. (See Figure 8.2 for an example.)
Some consider the conscious experience an additional spectrum of reality. As noted previously, scientists are working on applications that will allow people to communicate and move objects with their mind. In the near future, a form of sixth sense will be based on science fact rather than science-fiction. There are several applications for the technology that will become a part of our everyday lives, giving a whole new meaning to the word wireless.
Radio waves, infrared, and microwaves used to exist outside the realm of observation or measurement. Today, people take radio waves for granted as being a natural part of everyday life. In the future, they will do the same with regard to mental telepathy. Some quantum experiments suggest the mind exists in a quantum state with the rest of its environment. We may all be connected in a manner similar to how the sixth sense operates. Perhaps far in the future, the mind will develop to a point where the need for any communication device will become unnecessary.
X-rays will prove to be a hoax—Lord Kelvin, 1883[i]
Is every case of paranormal activity reported throughout history based on a hoax, coincidence, hallucination, or something with a mundane explanation? If a single case of ghosts, UFOs, ESP, miracles, Bigfoot, poltergeists, or any other unexplained phenomenon were ever validated, the subject would no longer be considered paranormal. It only takes one. But what if a natural, scientific interpretation exists for the small amount of cases that seem to have no readable, mundane explanation?
There is one alleged phenomenon that does not fit this category. Since, on the surface, UFOs and the extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) require a scientific explanation, that topic will be left out of this section and revisited throughout Chapter 11. Ghosts, the sixth sense, and divine miracles are among some of the most popular types that could harbor a scientific explanation.
The quantum world of physics depends on bizarre explanations and includes some theories that defy any commonsense notion of the world around us. Quantum entanglement, time travel, quantum non-locality, the many-worlds interpretation, quantum teleportation, alternate dimensions, and quantum tunneling all, on the surface, appear to have a mystical interpretation to support each theory. Even classical interpretations of Einstein’s theory of special relativity are based on strange properties that require one to throw out many commonsense notions of the world around us. But relativity has been tested and substantiated.
If we reverse the logic, could an existing paranormal phenomenon instead have a scientific, perhaps quantum explanation? Scientists should consider eliminating them as a possibility, even if doing so provides a hypothesis that might never be tested in our lifetime. Since some of these cases refuse to go away, why not quell the mythological fire and assign them some kind of interpretation that eliminates any mystical rendition?
[i] Thomson, William (Lord Kelvin). Mathematical Physicist. 1883.
Do You Believe In Ghosts?
If we consider the evidence, in particular accounts made by credible eyewitnesses coupled with unexplained photographs, could some cases of ghosts be a reflection of someone living in an alternate universe? In string theory, scientists propose higher dimensions are an atom’s length apart, but we cannot readily see or experience them. The theory suggests these multi-dimensional branes sometimes waver closer yet. If an alternate dimension exists on another plane of three-dimensional reality and behaves in a similar manner to that of string theory, could we catch a glimpse of that reality here on our plane as the realms waver closer in proximity? Could a ghost be an alternate version of someone that died in this reality but is very much alive in another? Do “hotspots” exist in certain areas of the planet that would allow supposed ghosts or poltergeists appear more often than in others? Physical glimpses of Bigfoot or other strange creatures that might not exist in our reality may appear briefly from another. If alternate-universe planes act in a similar manner to branes in string theory, these glimpses could reveal themselves as the planes interact. Perhaps it has something to do with specific areas of the planet where magnetic field lines interact with physical matter from an alternate plane of existence, much like how gravity and dark matter from higher dimensions interact with our three-dimensional realm based on principles of quantum physics.
Poltergeists are a physical phenomenon, ghosts a visual one. As outlined in quantum physics, both photon and graviton could exist throughout multiple dimensions. There may be a crossover point of alternate realities under special circumstances that would appear ethereal or physical to us. So not only might we see something occurring in another dimension or reality, we may be able to feel it.
Someone who lost a loved one in this many-worlds Universe might be more “in tune” with the quantum-mind signature of him still living in another. If a larger number of alternate versions contain a living version of, for example, a woman’s husband that passed away in this reality, more versions of him living in others have a better chance of momentarily crossing over. If this Universe is localized as the exception to that person’s fate and he is alive in more versions than not, instances of the crossover to this reality could be amplified. If her consciousness is in tune with the quantum-mind connection or more receptive to his mind’s unique signature after spending a lifetime together, she may be susceptible to witnessing such activity. Instances where the apparition has no direct communication with the witness and appears as nothing more than a holographic projection may be the only cases worth considering. That includes instances of poltergeists, or objects moving at random, not directed at the witness.
Do You Believe In ESP?
Applications for neural-network systems that read a person’s mind are in the works at NTT Labs in Japan. They developed a system that receives input from sensors attached to the skull. Commands for a joystick are carried out when the user concentrates on the words up, down, left, or right. The changes in EEG patterns of the brain translate these thoughts into controlling commands for the joystick. The US Air Force is studying this technology for future use in fighter planes. Quadriplegics are others hopeful of gaining from some of its applications.
In the future, different segments of society could become telepathic, and many aspects of the sixth sense would no longer be considered paranormal. Upon wearing a special headpiece or having a transmitter implanted, all appliances in the home could be controlled by one’s thoughts. Imagine how much more focus you would need to maintain for certain situations to remain stable, in particular instances where you share your thoughts with others.
In the future, neurosurgeons will implant similar neural devices in the brain for the purpose of virtual telepathy. Initial models would resemble a mobile headpiece or wireless device. One could transmit his or her thoughts from a brain implant to a module, from it to another’s module, then from it to the brain of another, all within a fraction of a second. Later models would eliminate the use of any mobile device. Manufacturers would establish different frequencies for members of the general population, various businesses, government agencies, and so on, much like how the internet operates. This technology would set in motion a new field of psychic espionage. Efficiently using such equipment might require a great deal of practice and focus, in particular for privacy issues and not sharing your personal thoughts with those around you. Determining the guilt or innocence of someone convicted of a crime would become a perfect system.
The sixth sense may provide a natural explanation. The quantum-mind connection argues the consciousnesses of all living beings are somehow connected to the Universe and to each other. This natural interpretation might allow for potential communication with each other via telepathy, manipulating solid objects, and the ghost connection outlined above. As far as predicting future events, the interpretation of the Now puts that foresight in the present. In other words, the elimination of time allows for a seemingly future prediction of an event, though as nothing more than the likeliest quantum occurrence about to take place during the future-present of the Now. Someone’s consciousness more in tune with the quantum world around her could predict the likeliest collapsed-wave-function outcome, or event that should occur next in random motion. That is not really predicting the future, but working out all possible versions of what will occur next during the here and now on a subconscious level. An idea allowing for an arrow of time with a beginning, middle, and end would be if we are reliving our lives in a virtual reality program. Only then could events be determined in chronological order, where an actual future could be predicted. Existence outside this program in the real world would restrict the possibility of predicting the future to the likeliest collapsed-wave-function outcome.
Hindus call the ability to tap into these predictions a part of the Akashic record, or knowledge of all thoughts and actions of everything throughout the entire history of the Universe written into the very fabric of the cosmos. Others call this thought-to-matter transformation realm the zero-point field, which is thought to exist in a different dimension. Again, only if this field is in a virtual program could a future prediction become 100% determined. Otherwise, it remains a calculated prediction based on all possible outcomes within the framework of the Now.
Mathematical physicist and cosmologist Frank Tipler believes reality is constantly shifting between different dimensions until an observation by a person, animal, recording device, or other sentient object is made. This idea is at the heart of quantum entanglement. Since every possible version of reality exists in many worlds at the same time, glimpses of some of those possibilities could be witnessed as an echo or reflection of each alternate history.
We all have experienced a feeling or sensation that seemed out of place. Some have had feelings they were being watched, later to discover their assumptions were correct. Cognitive neuroscientist Beatrice de Gelder studies emotions and facial expressions to determine if there is a sense-presence people can experience. Her experiments suggest people can sense one’s emotions without looking straight at them, in particular with blind subjects. Gelder argues there is a “blind spot” where people can sense these emotions. When the eye is looking at emotion, it takes a different pathway in the brain.[i]
Another pioneer of the quantum-mind connection and group consciousness is Princeton Research Coordinator Roger Nelson. He devised a worldwide experiment, called the Global Consciousness Project, from 1980 to 2002. The research suggests there is an emotional collective-mind network all people are a part of. In 2001, just prior to the 9/11 attacks on the WorldTradeCenter, there was an emotional spike in the network across the world. The data proves the odds of it being a coincidence at a billion to one considering it spiked right before the planes hit.[ii] Though it is the biggest piece of evidence to support his research, there are other examples.
English scientist Rupert Sheldrake does research bordering on parapsychology. He believes there is a morphic field, or region of influence in our brain acting as a magnetic field, which is an extension of our minds and links us to the surrounding environment.[iii] It is like having an uncanny feeling of someone we cannot see staring at us, much like those based on Gelder’s research. These fields link us to the environment, animals, and other people. There is a huge body of evidence to support his theory.
Cognitive neuroscience researcher Michael Persinger performs studies that suggest Earth’s magnetic fields influence thoughts and patterns on a physical level.[iv] This phenomenon is what causes birds to migrate south for the winter and schools of fish to swim in unison. His research shows people can experience these directed magnetic fields on the brain at a distance. Magnetic field lines are the planet’s natural medium that allows for the exchange of physical information generated in the brain.
Daryl Bem, Cornell Professor of Psychology, works with precognition to see if a person can predict a future event. Most of the time, the results are 50/50, which is attributed to mere chance. But when subjects are shown erotic images, correct answers are given a solid 53% of the time. That might not appear significant, but it is mathematically. The study suggests instinctive drives produced by a type of sixth sense serve a reproductive advantage. Brains could harbor an evolved drive to reproduce that scientists and biologists have yet to map.[v]
Joshua Brown, Assistant Professor of Cognitive & Neural Systems at IndianaUniversity, thinks he pinpointed where such “gut feelings” generate. The hunch you might have of someone watching you begin in the conscious mind as it scans for scenarios potentially dangerous. The second is from our subconscious, in particular the anterior singular cortex. It produces a gut feeling based on a decision that might be bad or fatal and acts as a warning system.[vi]
Theoretical physicist Michio Kaku goes so far to argue the sixth sense is what makes the Universe tick. The conscious mind controls the subatomic world by way of quantum mechanics. He indicates Schrodinger’s cat experiment, which explains quantum entanglement, suggests there is a cosmic consciousness generated by all biological beings observing each other at the heart of existence. In his book, Parallel Worlds, Kaku writes, “Anyone who can tap into the fourth spatial dimension…can indeed become invisible, and can even assume the powers normally ascribed to ghosts and gods.”[vii]
Pets and other animals that have regular contact with people is another example of senses bordering on paranormal in nature. Biologists argue an animal’s ability to sense one’s emotions is purely physical, but there may be more to it. We have all heard the phrase, “An animal can sense your fear.” Scientists insist the vomeronasal organ is what gives animals the ability to sense this emotion, so it may be a mundane phenomenon. If they can sense your fear at an instinctive, quantum level, taking into account the possibility of a morphic field, a traditional explanation might not harbor a complete answer.
Some pet owners swear their animal is in tune with any emotion they portray, such as fear, love, sour mood, and more. If they rely on such “instinctual” processes more so than people, they may be more in touch with this quantum-mind connection. The idea might support why some reports suggest animals can sense ghosts and other strange phenomena more so than people.
The most brilliant mathematician of our time, Srinivasa Ramanujan, was considered one of the strangest. Living in India during the early part of the twentieth century gave him limited access to Western books on mathematics. One book he did have, an obscure and forgotten book by George Carr, remained his only reference for devising his unique equations. Until the day he died at age 33 in 1920 from tuberculosis, he swore he was given visions for them in his dreams by the goddess of Namakkal. Though his claims persisted, Cambridge mathematician Godfrey H. Hardy was not at all interested. After disposing of the letter first sent by Ramanujan in 1913, he later retrieved it from the trash following a nagging feeling and was the single mathematician to take him serious. Like Einstein, Ramanujan was a type of clerk with a meager source of income, employed by the Accounts Department of the Port Trust Office in Madras, India. Hardy heralded his equations as one of the most significant discoveries in modern mathematics.[viii]
In string theory, Ramanujan’s equations support the existence of up to 24 different dimensions. The number 24 appears throughout his papers and is what mathematicians call a magic number. One of his lost notebooks, now a published book, was found by accident in 1976, so there may be more. His equations are the equivalent of discovering a new type of music still being deciphered today.
If Ramanujan had access to certain parts of his brain most people do not, the visions he experienced in his dreams might be nothing more than his mind working out the equations on a subconscious level. If his unique mind was more in tune with the quantum-mind connection, these visions would have a natural explanation.
The mind tends to work itself out while it sleeps. A concept we might struggle with the night before may become crystal clear the next morning and for no apparent reason. If we are more in touch with our subconscious while we sleep, access to key information we grapple with in our conscious mind may become clear. This might explain how some people find supposed meaning to our dreams and write several books on the topic.
Paranormal investigators and others that believe ghosts are here to convey a message or torment others will not accept this natural explanation for the phenomenon. To them, ghosts are “scary-good.” There is a sense of wonder and spook factor that gives them a warm, fuzzy feeling inside. That is how they always believed and no amount of science or logic will change that perception.
[i] De Gelder, Beatrice. “Uncanny Sight in the Blind.” Scientific American. (May 2010): pp. 61-65.
[ii] http://noosphere.princeton.edu/. Roger Nelson, “Global Consciousness Project,” 1980-2002, 2005, 2009.
[iii] Sheldrake, Rupert. Morphic Resonance: The Nature of Formative Causation. Rochester, VT: Park Street Press, 2009.
[iv] Crosley, Reginald. Alternative Medicine and Miracles: A Grand Unified Theory. Lanham MD: University Press of America, 2004, p. 75.
[v] Rosenblum, Bruce, Kuttner, Fred. Quantum Enigma: Physcs, Encounters, Consciousness. New York: OxfordUniversity Press, 2011, p. 254.
[vi] Bogdashina, Olga. Autism and the Edges of the Known World. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2010, p. 190.
[vii] Kaku, Michio. Parallel Worlds. New York: Doubleday Books, 2005, p. 182.
[viii] Kaku, Michio. Parallel Worlds. New York: Doubleday Books, 2005, pp. 172-177
Do You Believe In Reincarnation?
Reincarnation & Past Lives
Individual consciousness may not last forever, as cold and hopeless as that might seem. Others argue since matter and energy is interchangeable, so should be physical consciousness. In order to ensure we can revive consciousness from a duplicate map of the brain, first we must find a quantum link to it and the mind. If the process acts on its own once a copy of it is activated or the person is revived, the quantum link of his or her specific signal might be universal and connect to the unique mind map on its own.
If our Universe is nothing more than a synthetic alien experiment, we may reside inside an automated, virtual reality program. It may be the size of a universe or the size of an atom if capacity and size are relative. A Type V civilization from another universe may have “unnaturally” added this one to the multiverse pantheon. Motives could range from an escape from their collapsing continuum to nothing more than a grand science experiment, outside looking in. If so, the existence of an all-powerful “God” would be real, and It may have a face after all.
If our Universe is a natural occurrence but is monitored by a Type IV civilization and later added to their Encyclopedia Cosmologica, the consciousness of all intelligent beings on our planet and others could be uploaded automatically at the instant of death. The first civilization to appear in the Universe may have developed the technology to observe and harness each individual-displacement signature of every living being throughout the cosmos and then set parameters to upload that information on its own into some grand supercomputer. Within this three-dimensional universe program, people, animals, bacteria, and all that ever lived throughout the entire Universe could live again or relive their lives in the same manner as their previous existence. This interpretation might solve the mystery of past-life regressions, deja-vu, out-of-body experiences, and the like using science. If, as former arguments suggest, there is no time, the experience of it would transpire in the same chronological order with the same collapsed-wave-function pattern as the previous version. Since parameters could be set in any manner desired, a form of time travel would be possible within such a realm.
A reincarnation version of this program might harbor people reliving different versions of their life by way of automated variants in the supercomputer program. These variants might transpire at random based on the uncertainty principle through an infinite number of alternate programs running at the same time, hence a twist on the many-worlds interpretation. Perhaps in one alternate-reality “Heaven,” the same soul signature could exist as a conscious copy of itself running in different alternate-universe programs. Only on a different plane of existence or within a different manufactured quantum-atom universe (based on the atom universe hypothesis) could the signature reside in multiple bodies, or virtual reality systems, at the same time.
Similar interpretations reside in our subconscious and manifest themselves in movies like The Matrix, Inception,[i] the new Battlestar Galactica,[ii] and other stories found throughout various religious texts all over the world. Contemporary interpretations of such metaphysical possibilities make it easier for modern man to digest. Either way, some truths might be universal no matter the specific interpretations of them that change with the times.
If such a virtual-reality Heaven exists for sentient beings, any point in your life could be re-experienced the moment your conscious signature passes in this reality. One could argue we exist in such a program now and phenomena such as ghosts, deja-vu, the sixth sense, and other unexplained occurrences are all minor defects in the programming. During the progression of the timeline, the next life you experience or desire to experience would commence. You would die again in that reality only to be reborn in the next, all within simultaneously running programs. On top of that is the potential to relive a many-worlds version of alternate past lives, perhaps a version where you win the lottery. Versions may be personalized based on the type of life or lives you wish to relive. Some versions of this kind of Heaven could be based on your favorite fantasy or science-fiction realm, others based on your actual dreams. Whatever you wish from your subconscious would become “real.” In this sense, God would be similar to a virtual-reality, video game designer and we would be His characters.
The beauty of this hypothesis is it meshes with the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. It also works with Buddhism, reincarnation, and some aspects of monotheistic afterlife religions like Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. Though the concept is highly conjectural and, for the most part, based on pure thought, it is no less credible than other interpretations of religious doctrine. It presents a more logical approach to any other afterlife scenario.
If the previous interpretation is plausible, then all religions are in some ways right, in particular those based on some form of reincarnation or afterlife. Perhaps the belief-in-it part creates a subconscious awareness to transmit such a quantum signal. Studies performed by Michael Persinger and his God helmet might provide evidence there is a connection between a god and what goes on in the mind after all.
Professor Rich Terrell from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory believes God is real and we are the imaginary. God is like an interdimensional computer programmer and the Universe is His or Her playground. Similar to the aforementioned hypothesis of a virtual Heaven and those interpreted by the Wachowski brothers, his theory suggests we may reside within such a virtual reality realm this moment. He believes evidence of it is all around us, in particular with regard to the quantum wave function. Our Universe is designed like pixels in a computer, broken down at the quantum level and interwoven throughout higher dimensions.[iii]
Tulane mathematical physicist Frank Tipler devised a similar theory. At some point in the future, we will have the ultimate power to recreate everything in a virtual, reconstructed universe. Everyone will be resurrected and never have to die again. Tipler calls this final stage in our evolutionary development the Omega Point.[iv] But the nagging problem of individual consciousness and displacement remains. Will these resurrected entities really be us? Will our individuality remain intact so we can experience this virtual playground, or will they be nothing more than a copy of ourselves?
[i] Inception, Christopher Nolan, Warner Bros., 2010.
[ii] Battlestar Galactica, Michael Rymer, Universal Studios, 2004.
[iii] MacNevin, Andy, “The Computer-simulated Universe: Divinity or Reality?” Suite 101. Part 2, (October 17, 2011).
[iv] Tipler, Frank. The Physics of Immortality. New York: Anchor Books, 1994, pp. 108, 109.
(*Terms devised or given a unique interpretation by the author.)
Akashic Records Derived from ancient Buddhist and Hindu writings. A belief the entire history of the Universe is encoded within and throughout the very fabric of space and time. Some interpretations suggest it is a universal supercomputer program and others the “Mind of God.” Adherents believe people can access it through astral projection, dreams, deja-vu, deep meditation, and hypnosis. The version of an advanced, supercomputer, virtual realm mentioned throughout the book is a more scientific interpretation of it and may become verifiable with the help of future quantum science. See also Encyclopedia Cosmologica.
*Alternate Universe A coexisting state of reality, perhaps on another plane of existence or in an infinite number of atoms throughout a particular universe, contained within and related to each distinct parallel universe. An alternate, three-dimensional reality that lies outside the realm of our detection or experience. The many-worlds interpretation in quantum mechanics defines alternate universes since they are one in the same. See also atom universe hypothesis and many-worlds interpretation.
Atom Universe Hypothesis Idea each universe is contained within a single atom. This violates what scientists know about atoms, but quantum theory might provide us with some surprises as we gain more insight. Size is beyond relative in this scenario. In conjunction with alternate-universe theory, our Universe is a parent universe and every atom within contains its own plane of existence with its own alternate version of our Universe. Inside each of those atoms is another set of alternate planes, ad infinitum. These atoms are a result of the splits that occur in quantum theory after alternate decisions are made by each and every conscious being. Atoms and other subatomic particles may harbor the only “space” necessary to contain an infinite number of alternate universes within each parallel-universe realm. See also alternate universe.
Branes In string theory, they are layers of multidimensional folds found throughout the fabric of the Universe but in different dimensions. These branes are thought to reside a mere atom’s width apart, but one would need to travel the length of a dimensional fold and back again to observe the other side, or other reality. However, if the folds are just a separator between the dimensions, one could argue the traveler remains limited to the opposite side of the same three-dimensional fold, and the higher or lower dimensions “in between” remain unreachable and unobservable.
Cosmic Consciousness Idea of an underlying “consciousness” in the Universe causing wave functions to collapse in areas unobservable to conscious beings, in particular those that occurred in the early-forming Universe. Some call it God, but it is a less personified, more natural interpretation of cosmic providence. It may be interpreted as the collective, shared consciousness of all living beings throughout the entire Universe. See also All-encompassing Quasi-Universal Awareness.
Doppler Effect A measured increase or decrease in sound or light waves as they approach or recede from a particular perspective. The sound of a siren increasing in pitch and frequency as it approaches or decreasing as it recedes can be measured using the Doppler effect. Distances between stars are measured this way to determine how far away they are from each other.
Electromagnetic Spectrum Range of all frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum, to include radio, microwave, infrared, ultraviolet, visible, and gamma rays.
Electromagnetic Waves Waves related to the electromagnetic spectrum. The wave crests are measured as X-rays, light waves, television and radio transmissions, or microwaves. Their frequency, or amount of wave crests, can be measured with an oscilloscope.
Extraterrestrial Hypothesis (ETH) Idea that Earth is being visited by alien beings in unidentified flying objects. UFO buffs adhere to this hypothesis while skeptics cry, where is the physical proof? Proponents adhere to the plethora of unexplainable evidence, to include video, photographic, and credible eyewitness testimony. Opponents adhere to a lack of verifiable evidence.
*Future-Present The anticipated perspective of the future from the here and now. In all actuality, the future is experienced during the present. Since there is no linear time, all anticipated future actions occur during the future-present. Time is a human construct developed to measure the psychological arrow of time and place events as they transpire in chronological order. It is the anticipation of future actions that occur strictly during the present. The future has yet to be established, so there is no physical date one could travel to through time. The experience of it has yet to occur in random motion during the continuous present.
Graviton Virtual particle of gravity yet to be quantized. Physicists believe the graviton is spread throughout multiple dimensions and, as a result, gravity appears as the weakest force of nature.
*Individual-Displacement Signature (IDS, aka “The Soul”) Determines the unique, individual conscious signature found in all living things. It is a quantum phenomenon that defines and differentiates between the energy forces separating one being from another. Geography, ancestry, environment, and other elements from the idea of individual displacement are determinable factors. It is the interpretation of an eternal soul, but with a scientific explanation as a quantum function. Each signature, like a subatomic radio wave, is unique to the individual being. IDS is localized and receptive to the unique DNA structure of a particular brain while said individual is alive. After the person dies, it again becomes part of the Universe. If the person’s unique mind-map is saved and later revived, it should become receptive to the same conscious signature, and that person could live again. (If memories and individuality do not remain intact with the signature, cryonics may be a pointless endeavor.) A Type IV civilization may have the technology to harness this quantum-energy signature in a virtual reality universe, which might explain reincarnation and past lives if one considers the many-worlds interpretation.
M-theory (Magic, Matrix, or Mystery Theory) An extension of string theory that allows for the existence of up to 11 hidden dimensions, or 10 spatial and one of time. Some versions allow for up to 26, but the math tends to break down above 10. Each dimension exists on its own membrane, or brane, and is an atom’s length apart. The reason we are unable to see these dimensions is because one would have to travel the length of the Universe and back along the dimensional fold to witness anything above three dimensions. Physicists argue these higher dimensions could be similar to ours but may be more dynamic with peculiar properties. Our three-dimensional bodies could not exist in or witness any higher dimension.
Many-Worlds Interpretation (MWI) An interpretation of quantum mechanics where an infinite number of possible realities stem from each and every collapsed wave function. For example, a decision one makes as a boy can lead to him becoming president in one universe, a criminal in another, and everything else in between in yet others, ad infinitum. Each and every action or decision made by a conscious being, never mind level of intelligence, produces an infinite number of alternate decisions that each branch out into their own reality. This would need to occur either on a different three-dimensional plane, though its properties have yet to be defined by theoretical physicists, or in a near-infinite number of atoms within each respective universe. Since the Universe may not be a living entity, and each universe first perpetuates without conscious beings in it, the wave-function collapse by the interaction of atoms taking various pathways may be essential to the interpretation, thereby producing some alternate-reality universes with peculiar properties. Many would prohibit the ability to support life. Our ideal reality exists because there are an infinite number of possibilities allowing for trial and error. There could be versions of a universe where everyone on Earth lives in a perfect utopian society with no pain or suffering. Others may resemble what some Christians would interpret as Hell. See also alternate universe.
Morphic Field Devised by Rupert Sheldrake in the 1970s, morphic fields are regions of influence in our brains that act as magnetic fields. They are extensions of our minds linking us to the surrounding environment. A school of fish is one example. A dog sensing danger or hostile intent is another. Someone with an accurate feeling of being watched, Sheldrake believes, is yet another example. All minds are “in tune with” and can affect their environment by way of morphic fields. Biologists call it nothing more than instinct or coincidence since the theory flirts with aspects of the paranormal, in particular the sixth sense.
Multiverse Encompasses all known and unknown reality and existence. Includes all parallel and alternate universes throughout all of hyperspace. Bigger than the Universe.
Neural Networks Different from artificial intelligence, they are intelligent, self-learning systems that grow and develop independent of their initial programming. Neural networks are artificial neurons designed to continue progressing where their basic programming leaves off. They are artificial, intelligent circuits that mimic the behavior of biological neurons and have the ability to learn on their own. Basic neural networks can be created in the lab, but it will take decades before complex ones that mimic human behavior are manufactured.
Now, The British physicist Julian Barbour’s view that time is an illusion, and reality is nothing more than a collection of moments in the Now. Change and motion create the illusion of time as we measure it. Time does not exist, only things that move and change within the familiar framework.
Omega Point The supreme point of complexity and consciousness for the Universe toward which it is evolving. A theory of evolution for the mind and technological advancement. A Type V civilization is an example of one that has reached the Omega Point. It would be a civilization that discovered all there is to know about everything with nothing left to accomplish. A society capable of recreating a physical or virtual universe indistinguishable from one appearing in nature.
Photon An elementary particle of light and electromagnetic radiation. The force carrier for the electromagnetic force.
*Plane In the alternate-universe or many-worlds interpretation, it is a separate realm, or level, of three-dimensional existence. A purely hypothetical concept but is the singular logical interpretation to differentiate between parallel and alternate universes. The only exclusive, established theory of multiple dimensions exists in string theory, but a dimension is different from a universe. A plane is a separate, three-dimensional realm for the many-worlds interpretation (again, same as alternate universe), whereas a brane separates a higher or lower dimension in string theory. Though multiple dimensions may exist throughout hyperspace and all parallel universes, a part of them may be confined to each parallel universe. For example, one parallel universe may exhibit the potential for no more than seven higher dimensions, or six plus one of time, this one contains 11, or 10 plus one of time, and yet another might contain up to 26. There are not enough black holes in the Universe for the parallel-universe interpretation to harbor an infinite number of alternate histories. There are not enough of them to account for the overwhelming number of possibilities. Another interpretation is other planes of alternate realities exist in an infinite number of atoms throughout each universe, which is outlined in the atom universe hypothesis. Each of these “atomic planes” contains an alternate history to that of our own. An atomic plane in a different parallel universe would incorporate its own unique set of alternate histories.
Quantum Entanglement The effect of multiple particles sharing correlated properties across great distances. This shared state is indefinite until measured. After two particles come together and are separated carefully, they share corresponding properties with each other to include those on opposite ends of the Galaxy. Albert Einstein called it spooky action at a distance. In theory, we should be able to learn about events occurring on the other side of the Galaxy without ever having to travel there. Decoding that information on our end may be impossible to foreseeable science. Future applications, if possible, would involve teleportation of macroscopic objects from one location to another.
Quantum Mind Hypothesis Dictates classical mechanics is unable to correlate and describe the function of mind or consciousness. Only will quantum mechanics have the ability to explain its mysterious properties.
Schrodinger’s Cat Experiment A thought experiment devised by Erwin Schrodinger in 1935. It deals with observed wave functions in quantum mechanics. The wave function of a particular observation does not collapse and is in an unknown state until someone makes an observation, thereby collapsing the wave function. Before doing so, it is in a superposition of states. The experiment describes placing a Geiger counter hooked up to a vial of poison and a cat in a box. There is a 50/50 chance a small radioactive substance placed beside the Geiger counter will decay. If it reads the decay, the poison will release automatically and the cat will die. If not, it remains alive. Until someone makes the observation to determine either way, the cat is stuck in a superposition of states, neither dead nor alive. Some argue the experiment is flawed if the Universe, itself, is a type of living organism. In addition, the cat is a living being able to make the observation it remains alive. The existence of microbes, bacteria, and atoms in the box make additional observations of their own and collapse the wave function long before anyone peeks into it. If the Universe is a living organism, it is already “aware” of any decay and no observers of any sort are necessary. Also consider wave functions throughout the Universe collapsed during its early stages before the existence of any life. If anything, the experiment suggests nothing more than the Universe is a type of living organism.
Sixth Sense Also known as Extra-Sensory Perception, or ESP. Applications of a type of sixth sense are being applied to control systems hooked up to the brain. These pattern readers interpret brain activity and are sensitive to thoughts. The Air Force is working on aircraft controls that read these brain patterns to make an airplane move in the desired direction. Think left and the control will move left, think right and it will go right, and so on. A true sixth sense will require advances in biology and quantum physics well beyond current technology. If the mind is somehow connected to the quantum world, we may learn to control our thoughts and send them to another remotely. It may sound like science-fiction, but there is a lot of science behind the idea.
String Theory See M-Theory.
*Type IV Civilization A later addition to the Kardashev scale since the next logical step is mastery of energy from the entire Universe. Proficiency of quantum mechanics and bending the space-time continuum for faster-than-light travel are other possible accomplishments of a Type IV civilization. One of them could dispatch Von Neumann machines to various galaxies throughout the Universe in systems that support intelligent life, cataloging all information in each. It would take about one billion years for us to attain this status and, by then, we would no longer resemble our human ancestors.
*Type V Civilization A God-like civilization having mastered energy and mobility throughout the multiverse. It would take billions of years for a civilization to attain this hypothetical status. Since our Universe is 13.8 billion years old, it is not out of the realm of possibility at least one has already done so. (Scientific calculations suggest the oldest possible civilizations in the Universe could be up to four or five billion years ahead of our present state!) It is possible a Type V civilization could create universes on a whim having mastered the quantum realm. Our Universe might be nothing more than one of their many science experiments. Their primary realm would be a utopian universe since they could predict all possible outcomes of every potential event. They would reside in and oversee paradise. If the mind, or soul, is found to be a quantum function, they may grant all beings an afterlife in one of their many paradise universes or in one of their automated, virtual-reality, quantum programs. Nearly anything would be possible for a Type V civilization.
Zero-Point Field The theoretical, all-encompassing, quantum energy field connecting all living beings throughout the Universe to each other and their surrounding environment. A connection between mind and matter. The theory may bridge the gap between science and some elements of religion and the paranormal. Many ideas in this book are based on the theory.