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What is Islam - Basic Concepts and Beliefs of Islam

Updated on April 16, 2015


Basic Concepts of Islam - ABC of Islam - Fundamentals of Islam

The base of Islam is the first Qalima (sentence). After reading down kalima tayyaba by heart a non-Mulsim may convert into a Muslim. It gives the concept of oneness (Tauheed) of Almighty. Tauheed is the soul of Islam which is the message of all the prophets. First part of Kalma Tayaba deals with oneness (Taheed) of Allah while the second part relates to the prophethood of MUhammad (Peace be upon him).

Kalma Tayyaba reads as under:

Foundation of Islam

According to Kalma Tayyaba there is no one else who is worthy of worship. It denies presence/ existence of any god but Allah. The second part of the Qalima tayyaba says that Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is the true prophet of Allah. On the one hand it says that the Muhammad is the prophet of Allah and on the other hand it says that the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is human being.

Attributes of God according to Quran - Muslim belief about Allah (God)

There are ninety nine names of Almighty which defines His attributes. According to ninetynine names of Allah He is the One, the All Inclusive, the Indivisible. Allah created us and all the universe like, earth, heavens, mankind, animals, birds and everything, visible or invisible. But He (Allah) is not created by anyone. Some of His popular names are: Al-Khaliqo (The Creator), Al-Bario (The Maker).

He is since the time when there was nothing and will exist when there will be nothing to survive. He is Ever Living. He do neither sleep nor nap. Basic concept of Almighty is clarified in the following verses of Quran:

Surah Akhlas:

Say you, He is Allah, the one.
2. Allah the Independent, Carefree.
3. He begot none' nor was He begotten.
4. And nor anyone is equal to Him.

Aitul Qurshi Ayat No.255 of Surah Al-Baqr

None is to be worshiped save Him Allah. He is Himself ever living and Sustainer of others. Slumber seizes Him not, nor He sleeps. Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever in the earth belongs to Him. Who is he that would intercede with Him save by His leave/permission. Knows He what is before them and what is behind them and they get nothing of His knowledge save what He desires. The heaven and earth are contained in His Throne and their guarding is not a burden for Him and He is the only Exalted, the Supreme.

Muslim Believe about Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him)

i. He is the human being. He is the best of all the creature of Almighty. Best among the human beings. He is the leader of all the Prophets.

ii. Sent by Almighty as a true messenger/Apostle/Prophet.

iii. What he said in nothing but truth. Falsehood cannot be assumed from any prophet.

iv. No one will be a true Muslim until and unless he loves Prophet Muhammad more than his life, his wealth and his family/offspring.

v. He is the last prophet of Almighty. There will be no prophet after Muhammad (Peace be upon him). The doors of prophet-hood have now been closed after the emergence of last Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The man who claimed to be prophet after Hazrat Muhammad is a liar. Following this basic part of belief, Mirza Qadiyani and his followers known as Qadiyani and Ahmadies have been pronounced as non-Muslims according to the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Article 260(3) about Qadiyanis declaring them non-Muslims is reproduced as under:

"(3)(a)"Muslim" means a person who believes in the unity and oneness of Almighty Allah, in the absolute and unqualified finality of the Prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him), the last of the prophets, and does not believe in, or recognize as a prophet or religious reformer, any person who claimed or claims to be a prophet, in any sense of the word or of any description whatsoever, after Muhammad (peace be upon him); and(b)"non-Muslim" means a person who is not a Muslim and includes a person belonging to the Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist or Parsi community, a person of the Quadiani Group or the Lahori Group who call themselves 'Ahmadis' or by any other name or a Bahai, and a person belonging to any of the Scheduled Castes.

Gumbade Khizra - Rozae Rasool

Duties as a Muslim towards Allah (the Creator)

Complete Faith (Iman) in Him and to submit entirely to His commands is the first duty of a Muslim towards Allah. Muslims seek guidance from Al-Quran and Hadith(sayings of prophet)/sunnah (way of life of Prophet).

Religious duties of a Muslim towards his God are to believe in God & His prophets, to say the prayers in time, to observe fasting in the month of ramazan, to give zakat and to perform hajj (once in lifetime if eligible). Life of a Muslim should be in accordance with Quran and Sunnah.

As a Muslims we also have to believe in all the Prophets who were sent by the Almighty Allah on earth for the guidance of the mankind. Famous Prophets Include: Hazrat Adam, Hazrat Nuh, Hazrat Ibrahim, Hazrat Ismail, Hazrat Ishaq, Hazrat Moosa, Hazrat Isa (the Christ) and many others. Allah has sent about one hundred and forty thousand prophets on earth for the guidance of humanity. An Apostle or a Prophet is a very true and pious man. He is chosen by Allah as His Messenger. Allah motivate Him with His commandments, and he imparts them to humanity. In this way, the humanity used to know the right path to lead a prosperous life in this world and the world hereinafter. The life according to the commands of Almighty pleases Allah and such a human being may attain peace after death. Many Prophets were sent by Allah in the past to all nations from time to time wherever there was a need for them. When all the nations were in need of one, Allah sent His last and final Prophet Muhammad for the whole world and till the end of this world.

The Prophet Muhammad spent all his life preaching the religion of Islam and teaching the humanity to render complete submission to the commands of Allah. Islam is the religion of peace. Teachings of Islam are against terrorism and bloodshed. Islam gives greatest importance to the life of a human being. In Islam all the human beings are the family of God. None is better than other on account of caste, creed, language or race.

The cardinal Articles of Faith in Islam

    1. Kalma Tayyaba is the first article of faith which says that Allah is one and He is only worthy of worship.
    2. To belief that there are enormous Angels of Almighty busy to serve the commands of Almighty. The four heads of Angels are Jibrail, Mikael, Izrael and Israfil.
    3. Muslims believe in all His Books namely; Tauret (Bible), Zaboor, Injeel and Quran-e-Hakeem. It is also a part of their believe that all the books have been altered and not present in their original shape, except Quran. Quran cannot be altered and should remain in its original shape till Qayamah (End of days).
    4. To believe in all the Prophets of Almighty sent by the Almighty for the guidance of Humanity. Their due respect is the part of believe of the Muslims. That is why no Muslim has ever uttered a single word about other Prophets like Jesus despite the fact that the people who claimed to be the followers of Jesus have made slander/blasphemy of Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) many a times.
    5. Muslims believe in the day of judgment. This universe has to see its end. The Day of Resurrection has been mentioned on many occasions in Quran. On this day every human being will be questioned about his deeds and the persons having good deeds in his account would be rewarded with Heaven and sinners/bad people/infidels would have to go to Hell.

Muslims believe that Almighty has the power to do anything. Nothing could happen without His permission/will. However, every human being is responsible for his deeds and the humans are bestowed with knowledge and wisdom.

Fundamental Principles of Islam are five in number

i) The declaration of La ilaha illallah Muhammad-ur-rasoolullah, [There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is His Prophet].

ii) There are five prayers in a day, Fajar, Zohar, Asr, Maghrib and Isha. They are obligatory prayers and every Muslim is bound to say prayers five times in a day.

iii) Zakat. Its literal meaning are "to be clear, to grow, to increase." It is an obligation on a Muslim to give charity. It is an Islamic alams-fee among the deserving. The riches have to distribute 1/5th of his possessions amongst the needy/deserving once in a complete year.

iv) Muslims observe fasting in the month of Ramzan. They do not eat or drink from early in the morning till evening. In summer their fasts may continue for 16/17 hours in some cases.

Once in the life of a Muslims, who have the resources would be under religious obligation to perform Hajj (Pilgrimage) to Mecca.


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