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Comparison of Christianity, Islam, and Judaism

Updated on May 20, 2017

“Protection of religious freedom means considering the faiths and beliefs of everyone involved,” said American Politician, Mike Quigley. The three main religions that account for more than half of the world’s religions falls under the category of being the Abrahamic religions. A simple comparison between these three religions will help most people understand each other’s faith, thus accepting each other as colleagues rather than enemies. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are the three Abrahamic religions because the Prophet Abraham is declared by each of them as the origin of their faith. With the common forefather of their beliefs being the Prophet Abraham the title was coined for them as the Abrahamic religions.


Let’s Compare the Abrahamic Religions


Adheres are Called

  • Christianity: Christians
  • Islam: Muslims
  • Judaism: Jews


Original Language

  • Christianity: Aramaic and Greek
  • Islam: Arabic
  • Jew: Hebrew



Place Founded

  • Christianity: Modern-day Israel, Palestine, and Jordan
  • Islam: Arabian Peninsula
  • Judaism: Modern-day Israel, Palestine, and Jordan


Primary Locations

  • Christianity: North and South America, Africa, and Europe
  • Islam: Middle East, North Africa, and Southeast Asia
  • Judaism: Israel, Eastern Europe, and the USA



Creeds

  • Christianity: Apostle's Creed, Nicene Creed
  • Islam: Six Articles of Faith
  • Judaism: 13 Articles of Faith




Human Nature/ Sin

  • Christianity: Humans inherit "original sin" from Adam, making them have a tendency to do evil.
  • Islam: Humans were are born good but develops equal ability to do good or evil
  • Judaism: Humans has the equal impulse to do good or bad



Salvation

  • Christianity: Correct belief, faith, good deeds, sacraments (Protestants: emphasize faith alone)
  • Islam: Correct belief, good deeds, Five Pillars
  • Judaism: Belief in God, good deeds



Afterlife

  • Christianity: Eternal heaven or hell (most denominations); temporary purgatory (Catholicism)
  • Islam: Eternal Paradise or eternal Hell
  • Judaism: Views vary: no afterlife, shadowy existence, The World to Come (similar to heaven), Gehenna (similar to hell), or reincarnation


God

  • Christianity: One God, who is a Trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit
  • Islam: One God (Allah in Arabic); the same God revealed in the Jewish and Christian Bibles, but they believe there was an imperfection in their final determination of God’s description.
  • Judaism: One God (Yahweh (YHVH))



Religious Law

  • Christianity: Canon law (Catholicism)/ no direct laws for other branches
  • Islam: Sharia
  • Judaism: Halakhah




Religious Authority

  • Christianity: Bible; some also look to church fathers, church councils, ecumenical creeds; papal decrees and canon law for Catholics
  • Islam: The Qur’an and Hadiths
  • Judaism: Bible, Talmud, Halakhah




Holidays

  • Christianity: Lent, Holy Week, Easter, Christmas, and Saints Day
  • Islam: Eid-al-Fitr, Eid-al-Adha, month of Ramadan, Mawlid, and Ashura
  • Judaism: Yom Kippur, Days of Awe, Passover, Chanukah, and Purim



Day of Worship

  • Christianity: Sunday
  • Islam: Friday
  • Judaism: Saturday



House of Worship

  • Christianity: Church, Chapel, Cathedral, Basilica, Meeting Hall
  • Islam: Mosque
  • Judaism: Synagogue, Temple, Schul



Practices

  • Christianity: Circumcision, Prayer, Bible study, Baptism, Eucharist/ Holy Communion, Sermon on Sundays, the celebration of various holidays.
  • Islam: Circumcision, Five Pillars: Faith, Pilgrimage, Prayer, Fasting, and Alms. Mosque services on Fridays. Purification before prayer. No consumption of alcohol or pork. Holidays related to the pilgrimage and fast of Ramadan, the celebration of various holidays
  • Judaism: Circumcision, bar/bat mitzvah at adulthood, observing Sabbath, wearing tallit and tefillin, and prayer services, the celebration of various holidays



Clergy

  • Christianity: Priest, Bishop, Archbishop, Patriarch, Pope, Pastor, Minister, Preacher, Deacon
  • Islam: Imam/ Sheikh
  • Judaism: Rabbi



Prophets

  • Christianity: Biblical prophets were true prophets of God
  • Islam: Biblical prophets were true prophets; Muhammad is the final
  • Judaism: Biblical prophets were true prophets of God



Jesus

  • Christianity: Son of God, God incarnate, Word of God, Messiah, Savior of the World
  • Islam: True Prophet of God, whose message has been corrupted
  • Judaism: False prophet




Birth of Jesus

  • Christianity: Virgin Birth
  • Islam: Virgin Birth
  • Judaism: Normal Birth



Death of Jesus

  • Christianity: Real physical death plus spiritual suffering
  • Islam: Jesus did not die, but ascended into heaven (a disciple died in his place)
  • Judaism: Normal death




Resurrection of Jesus

  • Christianity: Declared a resurrection of Jesus
  • Islam: Denied a resurrection of Jesus because of the belief he ascended into heaven during crucifixion
  • Judaism: Denied a resurrection of Jesus



Second Coming of Jesus

  • Christianity: Proclaimed
  • Islam: Proclaimed
  • Judaism: Denied




Revelation Came

  • Christianity: Through Prophets and Jesus (as God Himself), recorded in Bible
  • Islam: Through Muhammad, recorded in Qur'an
  • Judaism: From the prophets, recorded in Hebrew Bible












References:

“Abrahamic Religions.” newworldencyclopedia.org 2016. Web. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Abrahamic_religions


“Compare Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.” ReligionFacts.com. 10 Apr. 2017. Web. www.religionfacts.com/charts/christianity-islam-judaism

“Comparison Table between Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.” Christianity in View. 3 Jul. 2016. Web. http://christianityinview.com/xncomparison.html.

Esposito, John. “How is Islam Similar to Christianity and Judaism?” Islamicity.org. 28 Dec. 2016. Web. http://www.islamicity.org/4654/how-is-islam-similar-to-christianity-and-judaism/.

The Abrahamic Religions
The Abrahamic Religions

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