- Religion and Philosophy»
- The Role of Religion in History & Society
Jews Jerusalem Expulsion
The Temple Mount
Holy city of Jerusalem
The Hadrian ban on Jews entering “Aelia Capitolina” continued to be enforced until around the 4th century AD. The Philistines nation had occupied five biblical cities of Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, and Gath, along the coastal strip of southwestern Canaan, and had Egyptian influence up to the closing days of the Nineteenth Dynasty. Many of us grew up reading biblical narratives of Samson, Samuel, Saul, and David, and including vivid accounts of Philistine and Israelite encounters, with favorites, the strength of Sampson pitied against the Philistines and David and Goliath. The Philistines has longed been noted for their skill in iron smelting a skill historians believed they acquired during conquests in western Asia. The coalition of tribes made regular invasions against the Israelites, and there seem to have been a state of unending war between the two nations. The rulers of the Philistine cities were known as seranim "lords". The Israelite king David, defeated the Philistines and the title kings replaced the seranim, governing various cities. However some kings were called Abimelech “father/leader” initially a name but later became a dynastic title. According to Cassius Dio (noted Roman Council and historian), well over half a million Jews were slaughtered by Hadrianin the 135 AD Bar Kokhba's revolt and which greatly reduced the Jewish population. The Romans renamed the new territory as “Syria Palaestina” as a direct consequence of this Jewish revolt, and in their understanding to completely disassociate Judaea from any Jewish influence. It was then that Jerusalem was re-established as a Roman military colony with its new name “Aelia Capitolina” but widely regarded by experts as an unsuccessful attempt to prevent Jews living in the city. There are credible evidence some Jewish families completely left the country altogether and finding abode with other disperse Jewish communities abroad. While a large proportion of Jews became prisoners of war and were sold as slaves throughout the Roman Empire.
For some five hundred years after this Jewish revolt, and their subsequent abolishment the city remained under Roman influence and rule. However during the 4th century, after the Roman Emperor Constantine I, became ruler, he oversaw development of Christian sites in Jerusalem the Church of the Holy Sepulcher one noted accomplishment, the City expanded in size and population. For a brief moment around 600–629, the city of Jerusalem shifted from Roman rule to Persian but quickly returned again to Roman control. This shift came about as Persian ruler Sassanid Khosrau II’ expansionist desire provoked him to invade Roman control territories and pushed his army through Syria, his Generals decided to attack the city of Jerusalem. In attacking the city of Jerusalem the believed would provide access to the Mediterranean Sea and would provide a strategic location for the Persians to begin constructing a naval fleet. The Siege of the city (614), after three weeks of relentless siege warfare, Jerusalem was captured and the victory resulted in the Persian occupation of the city. The Persian army entered the city, and the holy "True Cross" (believed to be the true cross on which Christ was crucified) was stolen and sent back to the Persian capital as a battle-captured holy relic, the Persian General ordered a swift destruction and pillaging of the city. Jewish rebels joined the Persians in defeating the Romans and as recognition of this the Persians gave the Jews permission to personally massacre their Christian enemies. Jerusalem and the Holy Cross remained in Persian hands for approximately fifteen years until in 629 when Emperor Heraclius recaptured the city and returned the relics to Jerusalem
By around 638 AD, the Islamic empire extended its dominion to the city of Jerusalem, and this Arabic occupation, granted the now aggrieved Israelites back into their city.The Umayyad (one of four Islamic caliphs appointed after the death of Mohammed) commissioned and completed (691) the construction of the “Dome of the Rock” (Islamic site) over the “Foundation Stone” (holiest site in Judaism. The Arabs commissioned this task to expand Islam in the city and wipe Jerusalem clean of anything Jewish or Christian. This Arabic control is not all that it seems, as for centuries many Arab powers in the region jockeyed for control of the city and this feud weaken Jerusalem's importance. This Arabic control of the holy city encouraged western church and governmental powers to launch what became know as the “crusades” with the intentions of driving out sinners from the holy places of Israel. The first military campaigns, known as the crusades was launched in 1095 AD by Pope Urban II with the primary goal of responding to the appeal from the Emperor Alexius I, requesting western Christian volunteers help drive the Turks out of the Holy land. The crusaders arrived at the outskirts of Jerusalem in 1099 AD, and besieged the city of Jerusalem who was successful in killing many of the Muslim and Jewish inhabitants, but spared the Christians dwellers. This western military campaign would be the first of several invasion of Jerusalem to take place over several hundred years. Saladin a Kurdish Muslim who became the Sultan of Egypt and Syria, invaded the city, and took it from the Crusaders in 1187 AD. However Saladin's descendant al-Kamil turns over control of Jerusalem to the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, between 1228 and 1244 AD. Jerusalem was again invaded in 1244 AD by Khawarizmi Turks who were in 1260 AD, replaced by Baibars, the Mamelukes leader.
Jerusalem and its environs were again invaded this time by the Ottoman Turks in AD 1517 and they maintained control of the city until the 20th century, when it came into the control of the British Empire. The walls of Jerusalem were rebuilt and fortified during the 16th and 17th centuries, preventing another invasion from nomadic raiders. The city’s economy flourished and the population steadily grew brought about by regional trade. This productive period lasted until the 18th and 19th centuries, but as the power of the Ottoman Empire declined the investment in the city deteriorated. The mid-19th century saw radical shifts in the political climate in the city, along with a new international presence in the city. After the Egyptian General Ibrahim Pasha’s occupation of Syria in 1832, foreign missions and consulates were established throughout the province which the Ottoman Turks were unable to remove following re-occupation. During the period evident was the first expansion outside the Old City walls, new neighborhoods developed and expanded to relieve the city’s overcrowding, starting with the construction of new buildings inside and outside the town by the English and German Protestants in the 1840s. The city also saw wealthy Muslim families building Ottoman-style villas on the edge of the growing German Colony, and established a new center for leading Arabic families. The first waves of Jewish immigration from Europe, took place during this period and the first of the new Jewish neighborhoods outside Jerusalem’s city walls included the Russian Compound, and the Jewish Mishkenot Sha'ananim, both founded in 1860’s. The Bukhari Jews formed the Bukhari Compound, and poor Middle Eastern Jews moved out of the Old City to form the neighborhood of Nakhlaot soon after. This period saw a building boom and a unique cultural blend that continued without interruption until the First World War