ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Development of the Battery - Better Battery – and Better Battery Life

Updated on March 27, 2011

Static Charge

It is estimated that batteries have now been with man for more than 500 years. The earliest documented methods of generating electricity were by generating a static charge. It was not until the year 1800 that a guy called Volta invented a battery called voltaic pile. This voltaic battery was just discs of zinc and copper piled on each other. The discs were separated by cloth soaked in brine. In the year 1836, a British guy by the name Daniel came up with another battery which he named Daniell cell. This Daniel guy was a chemist as well as a meteorologist. Daniel used two pots one with zinc sulfate solution and the other with copper sulfate solution to generate electricity.

Fuel Cell

In 1839, Sir Grove of UK invented the fuel cell where electrons and protons are separated from reactant fuel by a catalyst like in today’s phosphoric-acid fuel cell. In 1859, a Frenchman by the name Planté came up with his lead acid battery which was a rechargeable battery and which people have been using in automobiles even up to today. In 1868, another Frenchman called Georges Leclanche came up with Leclanche cell in which he crushed manganese dioxide, and used a carbon rod as the cathode whilst zinc rod was the anode and were then immersed in a solution of ammonium chloride. In 1888, an American by the name Gassner completed the Leclanche battery into a dry cell which could not leak fluids because he used molten salt – talk about seeing far because this dry cell battery has translated into an industry worth billions of dollars.

Daniell Cell: Daniel used two pots one with zinc sulfate solution and the other with copper sulfate solution to generate electricity. Image Credit - Wikimedia Commons.
Daniell Cell: Daniel used two pots one with zinc sulfate solution and the other with copper sulfate solution to generate electricity. Image Credit - Wikimedia Commons.

Nickel-Cadmium Battery

In 1899, Waldmar Jungner from Sweden came up with the nickel-cadmium battery. The The nickel-cadmium battery was and still is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes. This battery was successfully sealed by a French man by the name Neumann. This sealed battery is the nickel-cadmium we have in use today.

Nickel-Iron Battery

In 1901, Thomas Edison invented the nickel-iron battery which was meant to be storage battery. This battery had a nickel (III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and an iron anode, with an electrolyte of potassium hydroxide. The battery was meant to power electric vehicles. The battery was very robust and was easy to charge. It was however expensive. The nickel-iron battery could be charged continuously thus making it very ideal for backup power supply. The Edison battery company was sold to Exide Battery Corporation who found the battery unprofitable and with no future and discontinued production in 1975.

Union Carbide Corporation

From 1960 onwards the Union Carbide Corporation had developed sufficient financial muscle to carry on the development of batteries for the unending world markets. In particular, they successfully completed the development of alkaline batteries and alkaline cells. An alkaline battery is a battery made of multiple cells. They developed disposable alkaline batteries as well as rechargeable alkaline batteries. The alkaline batteries are batteries dependent upon the reaction between zinc and manganese (IV) oxide.

Nickel-Metal Hydride Cell

In 1989, the nickel-metal hydride cell was successfully developed. The nickel-metal hydride cell is similar to nickel hydrogen cell only that the battery uses a hydrogen-absorbing alloy for the negative electrode instead of cadmium. By 1990, the union carbide corporation jumped into the game they knew playing and successfully commercialized the nickel-metal hydride battery.

Rechargeable Nickel-Metal Hydride Cells:  Commercialization of the nickel-metal hydride battery today.
Rechargeable Nickel-Metal Hydride Cells: Commercialization of the nickel-metal hydride battery today.

Lithium Ion Battery

The lithium battery appeared in 1970 and there was great need to make lithium battery rechargeable. But lithium being a metal, this was very dangerous due to instability of lithium metal. Due to these problems of instability, research was concentrated in using lithium ion which is stable and in 1991, Sony Corporation of Japan was successful in lithium ion battery and it’s in this year that this Sony Corporation commercialized the lithium-ion battery which you and I are today using in your laptop computers and cell mobile phones.

Harvest Solar Power from Outer Space

Today, as you relax with your slim laptop and cell phone, do you ever wonder that it took these guys so many years to come up with a better battery that is presentable and acceptable to you and me? You may be asking yourself why they went looking for better battery life when God had given them enough energy from the sun. The sun has a lot of electricity but one problem has been how to store that energy so that we can use it at night, or when there are clouds or during the winter. If you can see these problems then you can see the logic why you and I should start thinking of how we are to harvest solar power from outer space in the next 500 years. How to get sun energy transmitted from space to the earth is the task we have so that we can avoid the problem of storage.

If you have liked this article, and you would want this page to keep up and improved, you can help by purchasing some great items from Amazon by following Amazon links and widgets on this page. A free way to help would be to link back to this webpage from your web page, blog, or discussion forums.

The Author’s page is designed to help beginners and average readers make some money as an extra income to supplement what they may be earning elsewhere - details of which you can find in My Page, if you will.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • Hello, hello, profile image

      Hello, hello, 

      9 years ago from London, UK

      Interesting hub and well put together. Thank you

    • hafeezrm profile image


      9 years ago from Pakistan

      Nice hub. I am interested to know about maintenance free car battery. Would this ever replace the conventional battery?


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)