- Internet & the Web
Entering the World of HTML
What is HTML ?
Hypertext Markup Language is the standard programming language in which web pages are created and transferred on world wide web, straight to users web browser. It is the language which is interpreted by web browser and displays content in managed way to the user. HTML defines the structure of a web page defined by standard markups predefined by World Wide Web Consortium(W3C). These markups serves as rules for the web browser to understand the structure of web page. Documents received on web browser comes from webservers or local storage are parsed and rendered as multimedia pages for users.
Breaking the HTML !!
If we break HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) in parts, we get three parts
Parts of HTML...............
1. Hypertext : The word hypertext and its concept is very old and used in software world since 1946. The word hyper comes from Greek prefix which means over or beyond. Hypertext is the text displayed to user on electronic devices like computer or mobile with reference to some other text which user can access immediately or content can be shown progressively. Reference to other text is given by 'Hyperlinks' on which user can click by mouse to get access to next information. Hypertext doesn't define just text, it includes images, tables other form of data. It is a very basic concept of internet and is one of the key foundation for world wide web.
2. Markups : We often underline some text while reading a book for important concept. This is kind of markup which tells us that underlined text is important. Similarly in software world markup tells the software how to render the content on user screen. Here we use 'Tags' as markup , which serves as rules or instruction for software to perform some action on content and generally not visible on user screen. HTML have predefined tags which are standardized by W3C, and these specifications tells the software how to display the structured data on user screen.
3. Language : In software world, a language simply means programming language if not specified otherwise. So HTML is a programming language used to transmit data on internet, and display output on user screen in web browser which understand this language. A markup language is a way to wrap the text in tags which makes the text or data distinguishable. A hypertext markup language or HTML simply means a programming language used to wrap the text or content in predefined TAGS and interlinking this data by hyperlinks.
HTML Version Timeline
"HTML" - 1993
"HTML+" - 1994
"HTML 2.0" - 1995
"HTML 3.2" - 1997
"HTML 4.0" - 1998
"HTML 5.0" - 2014
"HTML 5.1" - 2016
"HTML 5.2" - 2017
History of HTML
In 1980 , Tim Berners-Lee, a researcher at CERN, proposed and prototyped a system to share documents between CERN researchers. After that in 1990, he specified HTML and developed server and browser software to share hypertext page written in HTML.
The first document about using HTML called "HTML Tags" was made available to public in 1991 and it contained 18 tags out of which 11 are still part of HTML. At first HTML was considered an application of SGML (Standardized Generalized Markup Language). In 1994, HTML Working Group was created, which completed "HTML 2.0" in 1995.
HTML 4.0 was published in 1997 and reissued in 1998 and 1999 with minor bug fixes. After that development in HTML was halted as HTML Working Group started development of XML based HTML (XHTML).
HTML 5.0 was published in 2014 in W3C recommendation.
Worlds 51% population is using internet as per statistics of 2018.
How HTML page look like
HTML page comprise predefined HTML tags or markups in an orderly manner. Generally these tags have a closing tag and may or may not use "attribute". Some tags does not have a closing tag like document type declaration. A typical HTML page looks like this
<title>This is a title</title>
"<!DOCTYPE html>" is the document type declaration, without which browser does not trigger standard mode triggering.
The text between "<html> and its closing tag "</html>" defines the web page, whereas the text betweein "<body>" and "</body>" is the content which displays on user screen.
There are lots of elements or tags defined in HTML 5 by W3C. Each element have predefined set of attributes too which have name value pair and written within the start tag of element.
© 2018 Lalit Kumar