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How does Stephen Hawking Talk?

Updated on November 23, 2015
Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking | Source
Replica of "acoustic-mechanical speech machine".
Replica of "acoustic-mechanical speech machine". | Source

A brief history of speech synthesis

Voice synthesis has fascinated humans for centuries and the first attempts to create mechanical speech were made long before the advent of the computer. Talking machines appeared, in legend, as far back as 1003 AD with mentions in literature of Brazen Heads, which were brass automatons, in the form of a human head, that were said to be able to answer any question answered of them.

Various attempts to create artificial speech continued through the ages, including a bellows operated speech synthesiser designed by Wolfgang von Kempelen of Hungary called the "acoustic-mechanical speech machine". This machine included an artificial tongue and lips and was able to pronounce all the letters of the alphabet.

The first computer speech systems came about in the 1950s and the first viable text to speech systems was created at the Electrotechnical Laboratory in Japan, in 1968. Through the 1970s and eighties, the technology continued to develop and speech synthesis became available in many different devices including; calculators for the blind, arcade games and toys to help children with their spelling.

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Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking | Source

Stephen Hawking’s synthesised voice

The most famous of all users of voice synthesis software is, of course Stephen Hawking. The world renowned physicist, who came to public notice when his book, A Brief History of Time, which was in the British Sunday Times best sellers list for over 235 weeks, was published.

Regarded as one of the most brilliant physicist’s since Einstein, Stephen Hawking contracted motor neurone disease in 1963; a progressive disease that affects a person’s ability to control their muscles including those used for walking, talking, swallowing and general movement. Despite the fact that Hawking, at the time, was only given two years to live, he continued on in his brilliant career aided by his electric wheelchair and speech synthesis.

Hawking’s current computer system, which he has used since 1997, is based upon a tablet computer that is mounted on the arm of his wheelchair. Because he now has no movement in his hands and arms, he controls the computer by giving it commands through movements in his cheek. These movements are picked up by an infrared detector that is mounted on his glasses.

He ‘Types’ via a software application called EZ Keys. This application displays a keyboard on his screen and a cursor runs across the letters until Hawking indicates the letter to stop, with his cheek. As he selects the letters, the software uses a predictive algorithm to suggest words, and he then selects the required word from those.

Once he has completed his text, it is sent to a text to speech synthesiser that converts into his now famous computerised voice. When Stephen Hawking gives lectures, or makes speeches, he prepares them in advance and then replays them using the text to speech software.

How Stephen Hawking talks - in his own words

How text to speech software works

Source

Text to speech software works on one of two basic ways. The first looks at the spelling of a word and then refers to a dictionary of pronunciations of words to find the exact spoken equivalent of that word. The second method looks at the component of a word to look up the pronunciation of those components, very much like the way that children are taught to read by ‘sounding out’ a word. Most modern systems now use a combination of both systems, partly to save on computer storage space that is needed for what could become a massive dictionary of word pronunciations.

However, text speech software isn’t quite as simple as simply looking things up in a dictionary; there are many other difficulties that good text to speech software has to overcome. For example, how would you pronounce the word ‘of’? And it’s not just the contextual pronunciations that it has to overcome; it’s also the pronunciation of things like numbers that are problematic. For example; is 1958, nineteen fifty eight, one nine five eight, or is it one thousand nine hundred and fifty eight?

Source

Modern applications of text to speech software

Synthesized speech has come a long way since the days of a bellow driven mechanical speech machine with artificial lips and tongue, and is now readily available and affordable for anyone. For example, you can buy and download text to speech software that read web pages, word documents and other file formats from as little as $30.00 from websites like http://www.panopreter.com/

Now that the software is available so inexpensively, it can be used for many different purposes. As well as being a great aid for the visually impaired, it can also be used by people learning languages, people with reading difficulties, or simply as a way of studying, learning a speech or listening to text, safely, while you drive.

HAL 9000
HAL 9000 | Source

Where next for Speech Synthesis?

Science fiction has long played with the idea of talking computers. In fact, it was when Arthur C Clarke’s friend and colleague, John Pierce, demonstrated an IBM computer singing "Daisy Bell" that Clarke got the idea for the closing scene of his science fiction novel, 2001: A Space Odyssey, where the HAL 9000 computer sings the same song.

Although we have a long way to go with real artificial intelligence, with all the advances in speech recognition software and speech synthesis software that have been made over the years, perhaps something approaching a HAL 9000 isn’t as far away as we might think?

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Comments

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    • peachpurple profile image

      peachy 

      3 years ago from Home Sweet Home

      interesting, technology is awesome, isn't it?

    • tillsontitan profile image

      Mary Craig 

      3 years ago from New York

      Congratulations on your HOTD. Well chosen hub for sure. Everyone knows about Steven Hawking and most have heard him "speak". Curiosity and uncertainty as to the mechanics are certainly answered in this comprehensive hub. Well done.

      Voted up, useful, and interesting.

    • DzyMsLizzy profile image

      Liz Elias 

      3 years ago from Oakley, CA

      Congratulations on Hub of the Day!

      This was very interesting, and I had no idea that speech synthesis went back so far in time. (However, they've found that the 'brazen heads,' and similar things such as the Delphic Oracles, were likely priests speaking from an underground chamber with echoic properties.)

      Indeed, the science is incomplete. My GPS device mispronounces place names often, and sometimes to the extent that if you were totally instead of only marginally unfamiliar with the area, you'd have no clue as to what the thing was trying to tell you as the turn. For example, it pronounces the CA state capital as "Saw-craw-men-taw" with emphasis in weird spots, instead of the correct, "Sack-rah-men-toe," and San Jose (with the Spanish pronunciation of the "j" having the sound of "h:" San HO-zay) as "Son Joes."

      BTW--in RE: HAL- My husband knew folks in the film industry, and learned that HAL was a sly commercial for IBM. It's code: you just advance one letter from each letter in the name, and you get IBM. ;-) Your trivia tidbit for the day!

      Voted up, interesting and useful.

    • ShirleyJCJohnson profile image

      Shirley Johnson 

      3 years ago from Sallisaw, OK

      Very interesting indeed. Very interesting indeed.

    • sparkster profile image

      Sparkster Publishing 

      3 years ago from United Kingdom

      This reminds me of the track, Talkin' Hawkin', on Pink Floyd's new album, ha!

    • Artois52 profile imageAUTHOR

      Artois52 

      3 years ago from England

      Many thanks mySuccess8 . Speech recognition and synthesis software have come a long way in the past few years. So much so that it could now well be mistaken for AI.

    • mySuccess8 profile image

      mySuccess8 

      3 years ago

      There have been superb technological advances in both voice recognition software and speech synthesis software that have been made over the years, as you have clearly explained. While Stephen Hawking is one of the most famous people using speech synthesis, voice recognition software is now one of the key selling points for smart phones. We look forward to seeing more applications and advances in this technology that will offer greater convenience. Very interesting article, and congrats on Hub of the Day!

    • Artois52 profile imageAUTHOR

      Artois52 

      3 years ago from England

      Thanks all for the kind comments

    • heidithorne profile image

      Heidi Thorne 

      3 years ago from Chicago Area

      Two amazing things in the world of science: Hawking and speech technologies. Great review of both. Voted up and interesting!

    • mary615 profile image

      Mary Hyatt 

      3 years ago from Florida

      This man is truly amazing! I just saw a great show about him on PBS recently. I never knew how he spoke before, so I really enjoyed your Hub, it was very interesting.

      Congrats on HOTD; well deserved.

      Voted UP, etc. and shared.

    • handymanbill profile image

      Bill 

      3 years ago from western pennsylvania

      This is very interesting . Stephen Hawkins is a very interesting person and is an amazing person. i always wondered how how he communicated.

    • Social Minds profile image

      Donna S 

      3 years ago from Southern California

      I was just watching a video about his life 4 days ago. This is a great article. Thank you.

    • aesta1 profile image

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      I have always wondered when I see Stephen Hawkins how he communicated and now, I understand. This is really interesting.

    • profile image

      ArtDiva 

      3 years ago

      This is interesting, and so is the man behind the science.

    • Artois52 profile imageAUTHOR

      Artois52 

      3 years ago from England

      Thanks Nell. I'm glad you found interesting.

    • Nell Rose profile image

      Nell Rose 

      3 years ago from England

      Hi, now that was fascinating! loved the video too, he gets by with a little help from his friends! lol! I always wanted to know how stephen hawkings machine worked, I had an idea, but didn't know the exact workings, so this was really interesting!

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